Many thanks to the blog Maximologia for posting this here, we are merely reposting it. We have also included the original Greek text of the Confession (which was originally posted here) following each chapter and question.
This Confession of Faith has been ratified by all of the autocephalous Churches (Jerusalem, Russia, and Georgia in 1672; Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and the Bulgarians under the EP at the Council of Constantinople in 1723; and then by the rest of the Churches at the Council of Crete in 2016) and is therefore dogmatically binding upon the faithful. It was the official text used by the Church as a limitus test for Non-Juror Anglicans who wished to join the Orthodox Church in the 18th century.
The Confession of Dositheus, Ratified by the Pan-Synod of Jerusalem in 1672
DOSITHEOS, by the mercy of God, Patriarch of Jerusalem, to those that ask and inquire concerning the faith and worship of the Greeks, that is of the Eastern Church, how forsooth it thinketh concerning the Orthodox faith, in the common name of all Christians subject to our Apostolic Throne, and of the Orthodox worshippers that are sojourning in this holy and great city of Jerusalem (with whom the whole Catholic Church agreeth in all that concerneth the faith) publisheth this concise Confession, for a testimony both before God and before man, with a sincere conscience, and devoid of all dissimulation.
ΟΣΙΘΕΟΣ ἐλέῳ Θεοῦ Πατριάρχης Ἱεροσολύμων τοῖς ἐρωτῶσι καὶ πυνθανομένοις περὶ τῆς πίστεως καὶ θρησκείας τῶν Γραικῶν, ἤτοι τῆς Ἀνατολικῆς Ἐκκλησίας, πῶς δηλονότι περὶ τῆς ὀρθοδόξου πίστεως φρονεῖ, ἐν ὀνόματι κοινῶς τῶν ὑποκειμένων τῷ καθ’ ἡμᾶς ἀποστολικῷ θρόνῳ χριστιανῶν ἁπάντων καὶ τῶν ἐπιδημούντων τῇ ἁγίᾳ ταύτῃ καὶ μεγάλη πόλει Ἱερουσαλὴμ ὀρθοδόξων προσκυνητῶν (οἷς πᾶσα ἐν τοῖς περὶ πίστεως ἡ Καθολικὴ Ἐκκλησία συνάδει) ἐκδίδωσι σύντομον ὁμολογίαν ταύτην εἰς μαρτύριον πρός τε Θεοῦ πρός τε ἀνθρώπων εἰλικρινεῖ συνειδήσει, οὐδεμιᾶς ἄνευ προσποιήσεως.
We believe in one God, true, almighty and infinite, the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit; the Father unbegotten; the Son begotten of the Father before the ages, and consubstantial with him; and the Holy Spirit proceeding from the Father, and consubstantial with the Father and the Son. These three Persons in one essence we call the All-holy Trinity, – by all creation to be ever blessed, glorified and adored.
Πιστεύομεν εἰς ἕνα Θεὸν ἀληθῆ, παντοκράτορα καὶ ἀόριστον, Πατέρα, Υἱὸν καὶ ἅγιον Πνεῦμα· Πατέρα ἀγέννητον· Υἱὸν γεννητὸν ἐκ τοῦ Πατρὸς πρὸ αἰώνων, ὁμοούσιον αὐτῷ· Πνεῦμα ἅγιον ἐκ τοῦ Πατρὸς ἐκπορευόμενον, Πατρὶ καὶ Υἱῷ ὁμοούσιον. Ταύτας τὰς τρεῖς ὑποστάσεις ἐν μιᾷ οὐσίᾳ παναγίαν Τριάδα προσαγορεύομεν, ὑπὸ πάσης κτίσεως ἀεὶ εὐλογουμένην, δοξαζομένην καὶ προσκυνούμενην.
We believe the divine and sacred Scriptures to be God-taught; and, therefore, we ought to believe the same without doubting; yet not otherwise than as the Catholic Church hath interpreted and delivered the same. For every foul heresy receiveth, indeed, the Divine Scriptures, but perversely interpreteth the same, using metaphors, and homonymies, and sophistries of man’s wisdom, confounding what ought to be distinguished, and trifling with what ought not to be trifled with. For is [we were to receive the same] otherwise, each man holding every day a different sense concerning the same, the Catholic Church would not [as she doth] by the grace of Christ continue to be the Church until this day, holding the same doctrine of faith,a nd always identically and steadfastly believing, but would be rent into innumerable parties, and subject to heresies; neither would the Church be holy, the pillar and ground of the truth (1 Tim. 3.15) without spot or wrinkly (Eph. 5.27); but would be the Church of the malignant (Ps. 25.5) as it is manifest that of the heretics undoubtedly is, and especially that of Calvin, who are not ashamed to learn from the Church, and then to wickedly repudiate her. Wherefore, the witness also of the Catholic Church is, we believe, not of inferior authority to that of the Divine Scriptures. For one and the same Holy Spirit being the author of both, it is quite the same to be taught by the Scriptures and by the Catholic Church. Moreover, when any man speaketh from himself he is liable to err, and to deceive, and be deceived; but the Catholic Church, as never having spoken, or speaking from herself, but from the Spirit of God – who being her teacher, she is ever unfailingly rich – it is impossible for her to in any wise err, or to at all deceive, or be deceived; but like the Divine Scriptures, is infallible, and hath perpetual authority.
Πιστεύομεν τὴν θείαν καὶ ἱερὰν Γραφὴν εἶναι θεοδίδακτον, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ταύτῃ ἀδιστάκτως πιστεύειν ὀφείλομεν, οὐκ ἄλλως μέντοι, ἀλλ’ ἢ ὡς ἡ Καθολικὴ Ἐκκλησία ταύτην ἡρμήνευσε καὶ παρέδωκεν. Πᾶσα γὰρ αἱρετικῶν βδελυρία δέχεται μὲν τὴν θείαν Γραφήν, παρεξηγεῖται δ’ αὐτὴν μεταφοραῖς καὶ ὁμωνυμίαις καὶ σοφίσμασι σοφίας ἀνθρωπίνης χρωμένη, συγχέουσα τὰ ἀσύγχυτα καὶ παίζουσα ἐν οὐ παικτοῖς. Ἄλλως γὰρ ἄν, ἄλλου ἄλλην ὁσημέραι περὶ αὐτῆς γνώμην ἐσχηκότος, οὐκ ἂν εἴη ἡ Καθολικὴ Ἐκκλησία, Χριστοῦ χάριτι, ἕως τῆς σήμερον Ἐκκλησία μίαν γνώμην ἔχουσα περὶ πίστεως καὶ ἀεὶ ὡσαύτως καὶ ἀπαρασαλεύτως πιστεύουσα, ἀλλ’ ἐσχίσθη ἂν εἰς μυρία καὶ αἱρέσεσιν ὑπέκειτο, καὶ μηδ’ ἦν ἡ Ἐκκλησία ἁγία, στύλη καὶ ἑδραίωμα τῆς ἀληθείας, ἄσπιλός τε καὶ ῥυτίδος χωρίς, ὅπερ βλάσφημον μὲν ἐννοῆσαι, τὸ δὲ καὶ φρονῆσαι ἄθεον· οἱ γὰρ τοιαῦτα πρεσβεύοντες εἰσὶν ἡ Ἐκκλησία τῶν πονηρευομένων, ὡς φαίνεται γεγονυῖα ἀναμφιβόλως ἡ τῶν αἱρετικῶν, καὶ μάλιστα τῶν ἀπὸ Καλουΐνου, (οἳ οὐκ αἰσχύνονται παρὰ τῆς Ἐκκλησίας μανθάνειν, ἔπειτα ταύτην πονηρῶς ἀποκρούεσθαι). Ὅθεν καὶ τὴν τῆς Καθολικῆς Ἐκκλησίας μαρτυρίαν οὐχ ἧττον τῆς ἣν κέκτηται ἡ θεία Γραφὴ εἶναι πιστεύομεν. Ἑνὸς γὰρ καὶ τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἁγίου Πνεύματος ὄντος ἀμφοτέρων δημιουργοῦ, ἴσόν ἐστι πάντως ὑπὸ τῆς Γραφῆς καὶ ὑπὸ τῆς Καθολικῆς Ἐκκλησίας διδάσκεσθαι. Ἔπειτα ἄνθρωπον μὲν ὅντιναοῦν, λαλοῦντα ἀφ’ ἑαυτοῦ, ἐνδέχεται ἁμαρτῆσαι καὶ ἀπατῆσαι καὶ ἀπατηθῆναι, τὴν δὲ Καθολικὴν Ἐκκλησίαν, ὡς μηδέποτε λαλήσασαν ἢ λαλοῦσαν ἀφ’ ἑαυτῆς ἀλλ’ ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ Θεοῦ, (ὃ καὶ διδάσκαλον ἀδιαλείπτως πλουτεῖ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα), ἀδύνατον πάντῃ ἁμαρτῆσαι ἢ ὅλως ἀπατῆσαι καὶ ἀπατηθῆναι, ἀλλ’ ἔστιν ὡσαύτως τῇ θείᾳ Γραφῇ ἀδιάπτωτος καὶ ἀενάον τὸ κῦρος ἔχουσα.
We believe the most good God to have from eternity predestinated unto glory those whom he hath chosen, and to have consigned unto condemnation those whom he hath rejected; but not so that he would justify the one, and consign and condemn the other without cause. For that were contrary to the nature of God, who is the common Father of all, and no respecter of persons, and would have all men to be saved, and to come to the knowledge of the truth (1 Tim. 2.4); but since he foreknew the one would make a right use of their free-will, and the other a wrong, he predestinated the one, or condemned the other. And we understand the use of free-will thus, that the Divine and illuminating grace, and which we call preventing grace, being, as a light to those in darkness, by the Divine goodness imparted to all, to those that are willing to obey this – for it is of use only to the willing, not to the unwilling – and co-operate with it, in what it requireth as necessary to salvation, there is consequently granted particular grace; which, co-operating with us, and enabling us, and making us perseverant in the love of God, that is to say, in performing those good things that God would have us to do, and which his preventing grace admonisheth us that we should do, justifieth us, and maketh us predestinated. But those who will not obey, and co-operate with grace; and, therefore, will not observe those things that God would have us perform, and that abuse in the service of Satan the free-will, which they have received of God to perform voluntarily what is good, are consigned to eternal condemnation.
But to say, as the most wicked heretics do and as is contained in the chapter answering hereto – that God, in predestinating, or condemning, had in no wise regard to the works of those predestinated, or condemned, we know to be profane and impious. For thus Scripture would be opposed to itself, since it promiseth the believer salvation through works, yet supposeth God to be its sole author, by his sole illuminating grace, which he bestoweth without preceding works, to shew to men the truth of divine things, and to teach him how he may co-operate therewith, if he will, and do what is good and acceptable, and so obtain salvation. He taketh not away the power to will – to will to obey, or not obey him.
But than to affirm that the Divine Will is thus solely and without cause the author of their condemnation, what greater calumny can be fixed upon God? and what greater injury and blasphemy can be offered to the Most High? For that the Deity is not tempted with evils (cf. Jas 1.13), and that he equally willeth the salvation of all, since there is no respect of persons with him, we do know; and that for those who throught heir own wicked choice, and their impenitent heart, have become vessels of dishonour, there is, as is just, decreed condemnation, we do confess. But of eternal punishment, of cruelty, of pitilessness, and of inhumanity, we never, never say God is the author, who telleth us that there is joy in heaven over one sinner that repenteth (Luke 15.7). Far be it from us, while we have our senses, thus to believe, or to think; and we do subject to an eternal anathema those who say and think such things, and esteem them to be worse than any infidels.
Πιστεύομεν τὸν ἄκρως ἀγαθὸν Θεὸν ἐξ ἀϊδίου οὖς ἐξελέξατο εἰς δόξαν προορίσαι, οὖς δ’ αὖ ἀπεδοκιμασεν εἰς κατάκρισιν παραχωρῆσαι· οὐχ ὅτι δὲ τούτους οὕτως ἠβουλήθη δικαιῶσαι, τούτους δὲ ἀναιτίως παραχωρῆσαι καὶ κατακρῖναι· ἀνοίκειον γὰρ τοῦτο τῷ Πατρὶ τῶν ὅλων καὶ ἀπροσωπολήπτῃ καὶ θέλοντι πάντας ἀνθρώπους σωθῆναι καὶ εἰς ἐπίγνωσιν ἀληθείας ἐλθεῖν Θεῷ· ἀλλ’ ὅτι τούτους μὲν προειδότα καλῶς τῷ αὐτεξουσίῳ χρησομένους, προορίσαι ὡς ἀγαθὸς καὶ πολυέλεος, τούτους δὲ κακῶς, κατακρῖναι ὡς δίκαιος.
Ἐννοοῦμεν δὲ τὴν χρῆσιν τοῦ αὐτεξουσίου οὕτως, ὥστε τῆς θείας καὶ φωτιστικῆς χάριτος, ἣν καὶ προκαταρκτικὴν προσαγορεύομεν, οἷον φῶς τοῖς ἐν σκότει παρὰ τῆς θείας ἀγαθότητος πᾶσι χορηγουμένης τοῖς βουλομένοις ὑπεῖξαι ταύτῃ (καὶ γὰρ οὐ τοὺς μὴ θέλοντας, ἀλλὰ τοὺς θέλοντας ὠφελεῖ) καὶ συγκατατεθῆναι, ἐν οἷς ἐκείνη ἐντέλλεται, πρὸς σωτηρίαν οὖσιν ἀναγκαιοτάτοις, δωρεῖσθαι ἑπομένως καὶ ἰδικὴν χάριν, ἥτις συνεργοῦσα καὶ ἐνδυναμοῦσα καὶ ἐμμόνους πρὸς τὴν τοῦ Θεοῦ ἀγάπην, ταὐτὸν εἰπεῖν, πρὸς ἃ ὁ Θεὸς θέλει ἡμᾶς ἐργάζεσθαι ἀγαθὰ (ἃ καὶ ἡ προκαταρκτικὴ χάρις προσενετείλατο) ἀποτελοῦσα, δικαιοῖ καὶ προωρισμένους ποιεῖ· τοῖς δὲ μὴ θέλουσιν ὑπακοῦσαι καὶ συγκατατεθῆναι τῇ χάριτι, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο οὐδ’ ἃ Θεὸς βούλεται ἡμᾶς ἐργάζεσθαι τηροῦσι, καὶ ἐν τοῖς τοῦ σατανᾶ ἐπιτηδεύμασι τὴν ἣν παρὰ Θεοῦ εἰλήφασιν αὐτεξουσιότητα εἰς τὸ ἐργάζεσθαι ἑκουσίως τὸ ἀγαθόν, καταχρωμένοις, γίνεσθαι τὴν παραχώρησιν εἰς ἀΐδιον κατάκρισιν.
Τὸ δὲ λέγειν τοὺς παμμιάρους αἱρετικοὺς (ὡς κεῖται ἐν τῷδε τῷ κεφαλαίῳ τὸν Θεὸν προορίζειν ἢ κατακρίνειν μηδαμῶς εἰς τὰ ἔργα ἀποβλέποντα τῶν προοριζομένων ἢ κατακρινομένων, βέβηλον καὶ ἀνόσιον οἴδαμεν. Ἐμάχετο γὰρ ἂν οὕτως ἡ Γραφὴ πρὸς ἑαυτήν, διὰ τῶν ἔργων τῷ πιστῷ διδάσκουσα τὴν σωτηρίαν, καὶ τὸν Θεὸν αἴτιον ὑποθεμένη κατὰ τὴν φωτιστικὴν χάριν, ἣν μὴ προηγησαμένων ἔργων, παρέχει κατὰ τὸν πλοῦτον τῆς χρηστότητος αὐτοῦ, δεῖξαι τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ τὴν τῶν θείων πραγμάτων ἀλήθειαν, καὶ διδάξαι ὅπως οὗτος ταύτῃ συγκατατεθῇ, εἰ βούλοιτο, καὶ ποιήσῃ τὸ ἀγαθὸν καὶ εὐάρεστον, ὡς εἴρηται, καὶ οὕτω σωτηρίας τυχεῖν· οὐκ ἀναιρεῖ τὸ θέλειν ἢ μὴ θέλειν ὑπακοῦσαι ἢ μὴ ὑπακοῦσαι αὐτῷ.
Ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸ τὴν θείαν θέλησιν αἰτίαν εἶναι τῶν κατακρινομένων οὕτως ἁπλῶς καὶ ἀναιτίως, ποίαν οὐκ ἔχει μανίαν; ποίαν οὐκ ἐπιφέρει κατὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ συκοφαντίαν; καὶ ποίαν εἰς τὸ ὕψος οὐ λαλεῖ ἀδικίαν καὶ βλασφημίαν; Ἀπείραστον μὲν γὰρ κακῶν τὸ θεῖον, καὶ πάντων ἐξ ἴσου ἐθέλον τὴν σωτηρίαν, ὡς μὴ ἐχούσης χώραν τῆς προσωποληψίας παρ’ αὐτῷ οἴδαμεν, καὶ τοῖς βεβήλοις γενομένοις σκεύεσι διὰ μοχθηρὰν αὐτῶν προαίρεσιν καὶ ἀμετανόητον καρδίαν, ὡς δίκαιον παραχωρεῖν τὴν κατάκρισιν ὁμολογοῦμεν. Κολάσεως δ’ αἰωνίου, ὠμότητός τε καὶ ἀσπλαγχνίας καὶ μισανθρωπίας αἴτιον οὔποτέ φαμεν τὸν Θεόν, τὸν χαρὰν γίνεσθαι ἐν οὐρανῷ ἐπὶ ἑνὶ μετανοοῦντι ἁμαρτωλῷ ἀποφηνάμενον. Μὴ γένοιτο ἡμᾶς οὕτως ἢ πιστεῦσαι ἢ ἐννοῆσαι, ἕως ἂν ἑαυτῶν ἐσμεν. Ἀποστρεφόμεθα δὲ τοὺς τὰ τοιαῦτα καὶ λέγοντας καὶ φρονοῦντας καὶ χείρους αὐτοὺς τῶν ἐπ’ ἀσεβείᾳ διαβεβοημένων εἶναι ὁμολογουμεν.
We believe the tri-personal God, the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, to be the maker of all things visible and invisible; and the invisible are the angelic powers, rational souls, and demons, – thought God made not the demons what they afterwards became by their own choice, – but the visible are heaven and what is under heaven. And because the Maker is good by nature, he made all things very good (cf. Gen. 1.31) whatsoever he hath made, nor can he ever be the maker of evil. But if there be aught evil, that is to say, sin, come about contrarily to the Divine Will, in man or in demon, – for that evil is simply in nature, we do not acknowledge, – it is either of man, or of the devil. For it is a true and infallible rule, that God is in no wise the author of evil, nor can it at all by just reasoning be attributed to God.
Πιστεύομεν τὸν τρισυπόστατον Θεόν, τὸν Πατέρα, τὸν Υἱὸν καὶ τὸ ἅγιον Πνεῦμα, ποιητὴν εἶναι ὁρατῶν τε πάντων καὶ ἀοράτων· καὶ ἀόρατα μὲν τὰς ἀγγελικὰς δυνάμεις, ψυχάς τε λογικὰς καὶ δαίμονας (εἰ καὶ μὴ τοιούτους τοὺς δαίμονας, ὡς αὐτοὶ προαιρέσει ἰδίᾳ ὕστερον ἐγένοντο, ὁ Θεὸς πεποίηκει)· ὁρατὰ δέ, οὐρανὸν καὶ τὰ ὑπ’ οὐρανόν. Ὅτι δὲ φύσει ἀγαθὸς ὁ ποιητής, ἐποίησε καλὰ λίαν πάντα ὅσα ἐποίησεν. Οὐδὲ δύναταί ποτε κακοῦ ποιητὴς εἶναι. Εἰ δέ τι κακόν, ταὐτὸν εἰπεῖν ἁμάρτημα, γινόμενον ἐναντίως τῇ θείᾳ θελήσει, ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ ἢ τῷ διαβόλῳ, (ἁπλῶς γὰρ ἐν τῇ φύσει κακὸν οὐκ οἴδαμεν), ἐκεῖνο ἢ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἢ τοῦ διαβόλου εἶναι. Κανὼν γάρ ἐστιν ἀληθὴς καὶ ἀδιάπτωτος, κακοῦ τὸν Θεὸν μηδαμῶς εἶναι δημιουργόν, μήτε μὴν ὅλως δικαίῳ λόγῳ τοῦ Θεοῦ καταψηφίζεσθαι.
We believe that all things that are, whether visible or invisible, to be governed by the providence of God; but although God foreknoweth evils, and permitteth them, yet in that they are evils, he is neither their contriver nor their author. But when such are come about, they may be overruled by the Supreme Goodness for something beneficial, not indeed as being their author, but as engrafting thereon something for the better. And we ought to adore, but not curiously to pry into, Divine Providence in its ineffable and only partially revealed judgments (cf. Rom. 11.33). Albeit what is revealed to us in Divine Scripture concerning it as being conducive to eternal life, we ought honestly to search out, and then unhesitatingly to interpret the same agreeably to primary notions of God.
Πιστεύομεν πάντα τὰ ὄντα, εἴτε ὁρατὰ εἴτε ἀόρατα, ὑπὸ τῆς τοῦ Θεοῦ κυβερνάσθαι προνοίας, τὰ δὲ κακά, ᾗ κακά, προειδέναι μὲν τὸν Θεὸν καὶ παραχωρεῖν, οὐ μὴν καὶ προνοητὴν εἶναι τούτων, ἐπεὶ μηδὲ ποιητήν· ἤδη γεγενημένα δέ, ἒσθ’ ὅτε ἐπευθύνεσθαι πρός τι χρήσιμον ὑπὸ τῆς ἄκρας ἀγαθότητος, οὐ ποιούσης μέν, ἐγκεντριζούσης δὲ πρὸς τὸ κρεῖττον, ὡς οἶόν τε ἐκείνοις. Ἐκθειάζειν δέ, ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἐξετάζειν ὀφείλομεν τὴν θείαν πρόνοιαν ἐν τοῖς ἀπορρήτοις καὶ μηδ’ ὅλως ἀποκαλυφθεῖσι κρίμασι. Τὰ μέντοι παρὰ τῇ θείᾳ Γραφῇ παραδεδομένα περὶ αὐτῆς, ὡς συντείνοντα πρὸς ζωὴν αἰώνιον, δεῖν ἡμᾶς εὐγνωμόνως ἀνερευνᾶν καὶ ἑπομένως ταῖς πρώταις περὶ Θεοῦ ἐννοίαις ἀνενδοιάστως ἐκλαμβάνειν.
We believe the first man created by God to have fallen in Paradise, when, disregarding the divine commandment, he yielded to the deceitful counsel of the serpent. And hence hereditary sin flowed into his posteriority; so that none is born after the flesh who beareth not this burden, and experienceth not the fruits thereof in this present world. But by these fruits and this burden we do not understand [actual] sin, such as impiety, blasphemy, murder, sodomy, adultery, fornication, enmity, and whatsoever else is by our depraved choice committed contrarily to the Divine Will, not from nature; for many both of the Forefathers and of the Prophets, and vast numbers of others, as well of those under the shadow [of the Law], as under the truth [of the Gospel], such as the divine Precursor [i.e. St John the Baptist], and especially the Mother of God the Word, the ever-virgin Mary, experienced not these, or such like faults; but only what they Divine Justice inflicted upon man as a punishment for the [original] transgression, such as sweats in labour, afflictions, bodily sicknesses, pains in childbearing, and, in fine, while on our pilgrimgate, to live a laborious life, and lastly, bodily death.
Πιστεύομεν τὸν πρῶτον ἄνθρωπον, κτισθέντα παρὰ Θεοῦ, ἐν παραδείσῳ πεπτωκέναι, ὅτε παριδὼν τὴν θείαν ἐντολήν, τῇ τοῦ ὄφεως ἀπατηλῇ συμβουλῇ ἐπειθάρχησε· κάντευθεν ἀναβλῦσαι τὴν προπατορικὴν ἁμαρτίαν τῇ διαδοχῇ, ὥστε μηδένα κατὰ σάρκα γεννᾶσθαι, ὃς τὸ φορτίον οὐκ ἐπιφέρει τοῦτο, (ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἡ ἐγκειμένη ἐν τοῖς μέλεσιν ἡμῶν κλίσις πρὸς τὸ ἁμαρτάνειν, οὐ καθ’ ἑαυτὴν ἁμαρτία, οὐ γὰρ αἱ ἀσυγκατάθετοι καὶ ἄνευ πράξεως προσβολαὶ ἁμαρτία, ἔγκειται γάρ φησιν ἡ διάνοια τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐπὶ τὰ πονηρὰ ἐκ νεότητος), καὶ τοὺς καρποὺς αὐτῆς οὐκ αἰσθάνεται ἐν τῷ νῦν αἰῶνι.
Καρποὺς δέ φαμεν καὶ φορτίον οὐ τὴν θανάσιμον ἁμαρτίαν, οἷον ἀσέβειαν, βλασφημίαν, φόνον, παιδεραστείαν, μοιχείαν, πορνείαν, ἔχθος, καὶ εἴ τι ἕτερον ὑπὸ μοχθηρᾶς προαιρέσεως ἐναντίον τῇ θείᾳ θελήσει γίνεται, οὐχ ὑπὸ φύσεως· πολλοὶ γὰρ τῶν τε προπατόρων καὶ προφητῶν καὶ ἕτεροι μυρίοι, ὅσοι τῶν ἐν τῇ σκιᾷ καὶ τῇ ἀλήθεια, ὅ τε θεῖος Πρόδρομος καὶ κατ’ ἐξαίρετον λόγον ἡ τοῦ Θεοῦ Λόγου μήτηρ καὶ ἀειπάρθενος Μαρία τῶν τοιούτων καὶ τῶν ὁμοίων τούτοις πλημμελημάτων οὐκ ἐπειράθησαν παντελῶς· ἀλλ’ ἅπερ ὡς ποινὴν τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ διὰ τὴν παράβασιν δέδωκεν ἡ θεία δικαιοσύνη, οἶον ἱδρῶτας τῶν πόνων, θλίψεις, σωματικὰς ἀσθενείας, ὠδῖνας τοῦ τίκτειν, καὶ τέως τὸ ζῆν ἐν τῇ παροικίᾳ ἐπιπόνως, καὶ τελευταῖον τὸν σωματικὸν θάνατον.
We believe the Son of God, Jesus Christ, to have emptied himself (cf. Phil. 2.7), that is, to have taken into his own person human flesh, being conceived of the Holy Spirit, in the womb of the ever-virgin Mary; and, becoming man, to have been born, without causing any pain or labour to his own Mother after the flesh, or injury to her virginity, to have suffered, to have been buried, to have risen again in glory on the third day, according to the Scriptures (cf. 1 Cor. 15:3–4), to have ascended into the heavens, and to be seated at the right hand of God the Father, whom also we look for to judge the living and the dead.
Πιστεύομεν τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ, τὸν Κύριον ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν, κένωσιν ὑποστῆναι, τουτ’ ἔστιν, ἐν τῇ ἰδίᾳ ὑποστάσει τὴν ἀνθρωπίνην φύσιν προσειληφέναι ἐκ Πνεύματος ἁγίου, ἐν τῇ γαστρὶ τῆς ἀειπαρθένου Μαρίας συλληφθέντα καὶ ἐνανθρωπήσαντα, γεννηθέντα χωρὶς τοῦ δοῦναι πόνον ἢ ὠδῖνας τῇ ἰδίᾳ κατὰ σάρκα μητρί, ἢ τὴν παρθενίαν αὐτῆς διασεῖσαι, παθόντα, ταφέντα, ἀναστάντα ἐν δόξῃ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ κατὰ τὰς Γραφάς, ἀνελθόντα εἰς τοὺς οὐρανοὺς καὶ καθεζόμενον ἐκ δεξιῶν τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ Πατρός, ὃν καὶ προσδοκῶμεν ἐλευσόμενον κρῖναι ζῶντας καὶ νεκρούς.
We believe our Lord Jesus Christ to be the only mediator, and that in giving himself a ransom for all he hath through his own blood made a reconciliation between God and man, and that himself having a care for his own is advocate and propitiation for our sins. Albeit, in prayers and supplications unto him, we say the Saints are intercessors, and, above all, the undefiled Mother of the very God the Word; the holy Angels too – whom we know to be set over us – the Apostles, Prophets, Martyrs, Pure Ones, and all whom he hath glorified as having served him faithfully. With whom we reckon also the Bishops and Priests, as standing about the Altar of God, and rigtheous men eminent for virtue. For that we should pray one for another, and that the prayer of the righteous availeth much (Jas 5.16), and that God heareth the Saints rather than those who are steeped in sins, we learn from the Sacred Oracles. And not only are the Saints while on their pilgrimage regarded as mediators and intercessors for us with God, but especially after their death, when all reflective vision being done away with, they behold clearly the Holy Trinity; in whose infinite light they know what concerneth us. For as we doubt not but that the Prophets while they were in a body with the perceptions of the senses knew what was done in heaven, and thereby foretold what was future; so also that the Angels, and the Saints become as Angels, know in the infinite light of God what concerneth us, we doubt not, but rather unhesitatingly believe and confess.
Πιστεύομεν τὸν Κύριον ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν μόνον μεσίτην γεγονέναι, καὶ δόντα ἑαυτὸν λύτρον περὶ πάντων τὴν καταλλαγὴν διὰ τοῦ ἰδίου αἵματος πεποιηκέναι ἀναμέσον Θεοῦ καὶ ἀνθρώπων, καὶ αὐτὸν κηδόμενον τῶν ἰδίων εἶναι παράκλητον καὶ ἱλασμὸν περὶ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν. Ἐν ταῖς πρὸς αὐτὸν μέντοι ἐντεύξεσι καὶ αἰτήσεσιν εἶναι πρεσβευτὰς τοὺς ἁγίους φαμέν, καὶ πρὸ πάντων τὴν πανάχραντον μητέρα αὐτοῦ τοῦ Θεοῦ Λόγου, τούς τε ἁγίους ἀγγέλους, οὓς καὶ προστατοῦντας ἡμῶν οἴδαμεν, ἀποστόλους, προφήτας, μάρτυρας, ὁσίους, καὶ πάντας οὓς ἐκεῖνος ἐδόξασεν ὡς πιστοὺς αὐτοῦ θεράποντας, οἷς συναριθμοῦμεν καὶ τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ ἱερεῖς, ὡς παρισταμένους τῷ θείῳ θυσιαστηρίῳ, καὶ τοὺς ἀρετῇ διαφέροντας δικαίους ἄνδρας. Εὔχεσθαι γὰρ ὑπὲρ ἀλλήλων, καὶ πολὺ ἰσχύειν τὴν δέησιν τοῦ δικαίου, καὶ μᾶλλον ἀκούειν τὸν Θεὸν τῶν ἁγίων, ἤπερ τῶν ἐν ἁμαρτίαις ἐγκαλινδουμένων, ἐκ τῶν ἱερῶν διδασκόμεθα λογίων. Οὐ μόνον δ’ ἔτι ὄντας ἐν τῇ παροικίᾳ τοὺς ἁγίους μεσίτας καὶ πρεσβευτὰς ἡμῶν πρὸς Θεὸν ὁμολογοῦμεν, ἀλλὰ καὶ μετὰ θάνατον μάλιστα, ὅτε καὶ τῶν ἐσόπτρων λυθέντων καθαρῶς ἐποπτεύουσι τὴν ἁγίαν Τριάδα, τὸ ἄπειρον ἐκείνης φῶς τούτων ἐν τῷ νῷ τίθησι τὰ ἡμέτερα. Ὡς γὰρ τοὺς προφήτας ἐν αἰσθητῷ ὄντας σώματι οὐκ ἀμφιβάλλομεν εἰδέναι τὰ ἐν οὐρανῷ, δι’ ὧν τὰ μέλλοντα ἐχρησμοδότουν, οὕτω καὶ τοὺς ἀγγέλους καὶ τοὺς ὡς ἀγγέλους γεγενημένους ἁγίους εἰδέναι τὰ ἡμέτερα τῷ ἀπείρῳ τοῦ Θεοῦ φωτὶ οὐ διστάζομεν, ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον ἀνενδοιάστως πιστεύομεν καὶ ὁμολογοῦμεν.
We believe no one to be saved without faith. And by faith we mean the right notion that is in us concerning God and divine things, which, working by love, that is to say, by [observing] the Divine commandments, justifieth us with Christ; and without this [faith] it is impossible to please God.
Πιστεύομεν μηδένα σῴζεσθαι ἄνευ πίστεως. Καλοῦμεν δὲ πίστιν τὴν οὖσαν ἐν ἡμῖν ὀρθοτάτην ὑπόληψιν, εἴτουν δόξαν, περὶ Θεοῦ καὶ τῶν θείων, ὡς περιέχεται ἐν τῷ συμβόλῳ τῆς πρώτης καὶ δευτέρας τῶν οἰκουμενικῶν συνόδων, ἥτις ἐνεργουμένη διὰ τῆς ἀγάπης, ταὐτὸν εἰπεῖν, διὰ τῶν θείων ἐντολῶν, δικαιοῖ ἡμᾶς παρὰ Χριστοῦ, καὶ ταύτης ἄνευ τῷ Θεῷ εὐαρεστῆσαι ἀδύνατον.
We believe that what is called, or rather is, the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church, and in which we have been taught to believe, containeth generally all the Faithful in Christ, who, that is to say, being still on their pilgrimage, have not yet reached their home in the Fatherland. But we do not in any wise confound this Church which is on its pilgrimage with that which is in the Fatherland, because it may be, as some of the heretics say, that the members of the two are sheep of God, the Chief Shepherd (cf. Ps. 94.7), and hallowed by the same Holy Spirit; for that is absurd and impossible, since the one is yet militant, and on its journey; and the other is triumphant, and settled in the Fatherland, and hath received the prize. Of which Catholic Church, since a mortal man cannot universally and perpetually be head, our Lord Jesus Christ himself is head, and himself holding the rudder is at the helm in the governing of the Church, through the Holy Fathers. And, therefore, over particular Churches, that are real Churches, and consist of real members [of the Catholic Church], the Holy Spirit hath appointed Bishops as leaders and shepherds, who being not at all by abuse, but properly, authorities and heads, look unto the Author and Finisher of our Salvation (cf. Heb. 2.10; 12.2), and refer to him what they do in their capacity of heads forsooth.
But forasmuch as among their other impieties, the Calvinists have fancied this also, that the simple Priest and the High Priest [i.e. Bishop] are perhaps the same; and that there is no necessity for High Priests, and that the Church may be governed by some Priests; and that not a High Priest [only], but a Priest also is able to ordain a Priest, and a number of Priests to ordain a High Priest; and affirm in lofty language that the Eastern Church assenteth to this wicked notion – for which purpose the Tenth Chapter was written by Cyril – we explicitly declare accrdoing to the mind which hath obtained from the beginning in the Eastern Church: –
That the dignity of the Bishop is so necessary in the Church, that without him, neither Church nor Christian could either be or be spoken of. For he, as a successor of the Apostles, having received in continued succession by the imposition of hands and the invocation of the All-holy Spirit the grace that is given him of the Lord of binding and loosing, is a living image of God upon the earth, and by a most ample participation of the operation of the Holy Spirit, who is the chief functionary, is a fountain of all the Mysteries of the Catholic Church, through which we obtain salvation.
And he is, we suppose, as necessary to the Church as breath is to man, or the sun to the world. Whence it hath also been elegantly said by some in commendation of the dignity of the High Priesthood, “What God is in the heavenly Church of the first-born [cf. Heb. 12.23], and the sun in the world, that every High Priest is in his own particular Church, as through him the flock is enlightened, and nourished, and becometh the temple of God (cf. Eph. 2.21).”
And that this great mystery and dignity of the Episcopate hath descended unto us by a continued succession is manifest. For since the Lord hath promised to be with us always, although he be with us by other means of grace and divine operations, yet in a more eminent manner doth he, through the Bishop as chief functionary make us his own and dwell with us, and through the divine Mysteries is united with us; of which the Bishop is the first minster, and chief functionary, through the Holy Spirit, and suffereth us not to fall into heresy. And, therefore [John] the Damscene, in his Fourth Epistle to the Africans, hath said, the Catholic Church is everywhere committed to the care of the Bishops; and that Clement, the first Bishop of the Romans, and Evodius at Antioch, and Mark at Alexandria, were successors of Peter is acknowledged. Also that the divine Andrew seated Stachys on the Thone of Constantinople, in his own stead; and that in this great holy city of Jerusalem our Lord himself appointed James, and that after James another succeeded, and then another, until our own times. And, therefore, Tertullian in his Epistle to Papianus called all Bishops the Apostles’ successors. To their succession to the Apostles’ dignity and authority Eusebius, the [friend] of Pamphilus, testifieth, and all the Fathers testify, of whom it is needless to give a lift; and this the common and most ancient custom of the Catholic Church confirmeth.
And that the dignity of the Episcopate differeth from that of the simple Priest, is manifest. For the Priest is ordained by the Bishop, but a Bishop is not ordained by a Priest, but by two or three High Priests, as the Apostolic Canon directeth. And the Priest is chosen by the Bishop, but the High Priest is not chosen by the Priests or Presbyters, nor is he chosen by secular Princes, but by the Synod of the Primatial Church of that country, in which is situated the city that is to receive the ordinand, or at least by the Synod of the Province in which he is to become a Bishop. Or, if ever the city choose him, it doth not this absolutely; but the election is referred to the Synod; and if it appear that he hath obtained this agreeably to the Canons, the Elect [i.e. the Priest chosen to become a Bishop] is advanced by ordination by the Bishops, with the invocation of the All-holy Spirit; but if not, he is advanced whom the Synod chooseth. And the Priest, indeed, retaineth to himself the authority and grace of the Priesthood, which he hath received; but the Bishop imparteth it to others also. And the one having received the dignity of the Priesthood from the Bishop, can only perform Holy Baptism, and Prayer-oil, minister sacrificially the unbloody Sacrifice, and impart to the people the All-holy Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, anoint the baptised with the Holy Myron, crown the Faithful legally marrying, pray for the sick, and that all men may be saved and come to the knowledge of the truth (cf. 1 Tim. 2.4), and especially for the remission and forgiveness of the sins of the Faithful, living and dead. And if he be eminent for experience and virtue, receiving his authority from the Bishop, he directeth those Faithful that come unto him, and guideth them into the way of possessing the heavenly kingdom, and is appointed a preacher of the sacred Gospel. But the High Priest is also the minister of all these, since he is in fact, as hath been said before, the fountain of the Divine Mysteries and graces, through the Holy Spirit, and he alone consecrateth the Holy Myron. And the ordinations of all orders and degrees in the Church are proper to him; and in a primary and highest sense he bindeth and looseth, and his sentence is approved by God, as the Lord hath promised (Matt. 16:19). And he preacheth the Sacred Gospel, and contendeth for the Orthodox faith, and those that refuse to hear he casteth out of the Church as heathens and publicans (cf. Matt. 18.17), and he putteth heretics under excommunication and anathema, and layeth down his own life for the sheep (cf. John 10.11). From which it is manifest, that without contradiction the Bishop differeth from the simple Priest, and that without him all the Priests in the world could not exercise the pastorate in the Church of God, or govern it at all.
But it is well said by one of the Fathers, that it is not easy to find a heretic that hath understanding. For when these forsake the Church, they are forsaken by the Holy Spirit, and there remaineth in them neither understanding nor light, but only darkness and blindness. For if such had not happened to them, they would not have opposed things that are most plain; among which is the truly great mystery of the Episcopacy, which is taught by Scripture, written of, and witnessed to, both by all Ecclesiastical history and the writings of holy men, and always held and acknowledged by the Catholic Church.
Πιστεύομεν τὴν λεγομένην, μᾶλλον δὲ τὴν οὖσαν ἁγίαν, καθολικὴν καὶ ἀποστολικὴν Ἐκκλησίαν, εἰς ἣν καὶ πιστεύειν δεδιδάγμεθα, πάντας τοὺς ἐν Χριστῷ πιστοὺς καθόλου περιέχειν, οἵτινες εἰσὶ τὰ ἔθνη, (ἡ δοθεῖσα παρὰ τοῦ Πατρὸς τῷ Χριστῷ κληρονομία καὶ κατάσχεσις, ἐξηπλωμένη εἰς τὰ πέρατα τῆς γῆς), εἰ καὶ εἰσέτι καὶ νῦν ἐν τῇ παροικίᾳ ὄντες, οὐκ ἔφθασαν ἐν τῇ πατρίδι ἀποδημῆσαι. Μηδαμῶς δὲ συγχέομεν τὴν ἐν τῇ παροικίᾳ ταύτην Ἐκκλησίαν τῇ ἐν τῇ πατρίδι, διὰ τὸ εἶναι τυχόν, ὣς φασί τινες τῶν αἱρετικῶν, καὶ τῶν δύο τὰ μέλη πρόβατα τοῦ ἀρχιποίμενος Θεοῦ, καὶ καθαγιάζεσθαι ὑπὸ τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἁγίου Πνευματος· ἄτοπον γὰρ ἅμα καὶ ἀδύνατον, ἐπειδὴ ἡ μὲν ἔτι πυκτεύει καὶ ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ ἐστιν, ἡ δὲ τροπαιοφορεῖ καὶ ἐν τῇ πατρίδι ἀποκατέστη καὶ τὸ βραβεῖον εἴληφεν.
Ἧστινος Καθολικῆς Ἐκκλησίας, ἐπειδὴ θνητὸς ἄνθρωπος καθόλου καὶ ἀΐδιος κεφαλὴ εἶναι οὐ δυναταί, αὐτὸς ὁ Κύριος ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦς Χριστός ἐστι κεφαλή, καὶ αὐτὸς τοὺς οἴακας ἔχων ἐν τῇ τῆς Ἐκκλησίας κυβερνήσει, πηδαλιουχεῖ διὰ τῶν ἁγίων Πατέρων. Καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ταῖς κατὰ μέρος Ἐκκλησίαις, κυρίως οὔσαις Ἐκκλησίαις καὶ ὑπὸ κυρίως μελῶν συνισταμέναις, ἡγουμένους καὶ ποιμένας καὶ ὅλως οὐκ ἐν καταχρήσει, ἀλλὰ κυρίως ἀρχὰς καὶ κεφαλὰς τοὺς ἐπισκόπους ἔθηκε τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον, οὐκ εἰς ἄνθρωπον θνητόν, ἀλλ’ εἷς τὸν τῆς σωτηρίας ἡμῶν ἀρχηγὸν καὶ τελειωτὴν ἀφορώσας, καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν τὴν ἐνέργειαν τῆς κατὰ τὴν κεφαλὴν χορηγίας ἀναβιβαζούσας δηλονότι.
Ἐπειδὴ δὲ μετὰ τῶν ἀλλων ἀσεβειῶν ἔδοξε καὶ τοῦτο τοῖς Καλουΐνοις ὅτι τυχὸν ταὐτόν ἐστιν ἱερεὺς ἁπλῶς καὶ ἀρχιερεύς, καὶ δυνατὸν μὴ εἶναι ἀρχιερέα, καὶ διά τινων ἱερέων τὴν Ἐκκλησίαν κυβερνᾶσθαι, καὶ οὐκ ἀρχιερεὺς ἀλλὰ καὶ ἱερεὺς δύναται χειροτονεῖν ἱερέα, καὶ πλείονας ἱερεῖς χειροτονεῖν ἀρχιερέα, καὶ ταύτης τῆς κακεντρεχείας κοινωνὸν εἶναι μεγολορρημονοῦσι καὶ τὴν Ἀνατολικὴν Ἐκκλησίαν, οὐ ἕνεκα καὶ τὸ δέκατον κεφάλαιον συγγέγραπται Κυρίλλῳ, φαμὲν πλατύτερον κατὰ τὴν ἄνωθεν ἐπικρατήσασαν γνώμην τῇ Ἀνατολικῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ.
Ὅτι τὸ ἐπισκοπικὸν ἀξίωμα οὕτως ἐστὶν ἐν τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ ἀναγκαῖον, ὥστε χωρὶς αὐτοῦ μὴ δύνασθαι μήτε Ἐκκλησίαν μήτε χριστιανὸν τίνα ἢ εἶναι ἢ ὅλως λέγεσθαι. Αὐτὸς γὰρ ὁ ἀξιωθεὶς ἐπίσκοπος εἶναι, ὡς ἀποστολικὸς διάδοχος, τὴν χάριν τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἐκείνῳ παρὰ τοῦ Κυρίου εἰς τὸ δεσμεῖν τε καὶ λύειν χειρῶν ἐπιθέσει καὶ ἐπικλήσει τοῦ παναγίου Πνεύματος ἀλληλοδιαδόχως λαβών, ζῶσά ἐστιν εἰκὼν τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, καὶ μεθέξει πληρεστάτῃ ἐνεργείας τοῦ τελεταρχικοῦ Πνεύματος, πηγὴ πάντων τῶν μυστηρίων τῆς Καθολικῆς Ἐκκλησίας, δι’ ὧν σωτηρίας ἐπιτυγχάνομεν, Οὕτω δὲ αὐτοῦ τὸ ἀναγκαῖον ἐννοοῦμεν ἐν τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ, ὡς ἐν τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ τὴν ἀναπνοὴν καὶ ἐν τῷ αἰσθητῷ τούτῳ κόσμῳ τὸν ἥλιον. Ὅθεν καί τισι κομψῶς πρὸς ἔπαινον τοῦ ἀρχιερατικοῦ ἀξιώματος εἴρηται, ὅ,τι ὁ Θεὸς ἐν τῇ οὐρανίῳ τῶν πρωτοτόκων Ἐκκλησία καὶ ἥλιος ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ, τοῦτο ἕκαστος ἀρχιερεὺς ἐν τῇ κατὰ μέρος Ἐκκλησίᾶ, ὡς δι’ οὐ τὸ ποίμνιον λαμπρύνεται, θάλπει καὶ ναὸς Θεοῦ γίνεται.
Ὅτι δὲ ἀλληλοδιαδόχως τὸ τῆς ἐπισκοπῆς μέγα μυστήριον καὶ ἀξίωμα δίδοται μέχρις ἡμῶν, φανερόν. Ὁ γὰρ Κύριος, εἰπὼν εἷναι μεθ’ ἡμῶν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, εἰ καὶ κατ’ ἄλλους τρόπους χάριτος καὶ θείων εὐεργετημάτων ἐστὶ μεθ’ ἡμῶν, ἀλλ’ οὖν κυριώτερῳ τρόπῳ διὰ τῆς ἐπισκοπικῆς τελεταρχίας οἰκειοῦται ἡμᾶς, καὶ σύνεστιν ἡμῖν, καὶ διὰ τῶν ἱερῶν μυστηρίων ἑνοῦται ἡμῖν, ὧν πρωτουργός ἐστι καὶ τελετάρχης διὰ τοῦ Πνεύματος ὁ ἐπίσκοπος· καὶ οὐκ ἐᾷ αἱρέσει ὑποπεσεῖν. Καὶ διὰ τοῦτο καὶ Δάμασος δʹ ἐπιστολῇ πρὸς Ἀφρικανοὺς ἔλεγε, τὴν καθόλου Ἐκκλησίαν τοῖς ἐπισκόποις γενικῶς ἐπιτετράφθαι, καὶ Κλήμης πρῶτος Ῥωμαίων ἐπίσκοπος, καὶ Εὐόδιος ἐν Ἀντιοχείᾳ, καὶ Μᾶρκος ἐν Ἀλεξανδρείᾳα, Πέτρου διάδοχοι ὁμολογοῦνται. Καὶ Στάχυν ἐν τῷ τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως θρόνῳ ὁ θεῖος Ἀνδρέας ἀντ’ ἐκείνου καθίστησι, καὶ ἐν τῇ μεγάλῃ ταύτῃ καὶ ἁγίᾳ πόλει Ἱερουσαλὴμ ὁ μὲν Κύριος Ἰάκωβον ποιεῖ, μετὰ δὲ Ἰάκωβον ἕτερος ἐγένετο, καὶ μετ’ ἐκεῖνον ἕτερος ἄχρις ἡμῶν. Καὶ διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ὁ Τερτουλλιανὸς ἐν τῇ πρὸς Παπιανὸν ἐπιστολῇ πάντας τοὺς ἐπισκόπους ἀποστολικοὺς διαδόχους καλεῖ. Τούτων τὴν διαδοχὴν καὶ τὴν ἀποστολικὴν ἀξίαν καὶ ἐξουσίαν καὶ Εὐσέβιος ὁ Παμφίλου μαρτυρεῖ, καὶ ἁπλῶς οἱ πατέρες μαρτυροῦσιν, οὓς περιττὸν ἐγκαταλέγειν, καὶ ἡ κοινὴ καὶ ἀρχαιοτάτη τῆς Καθολικῆς Ἐκκλησίας συνήθεια καὶ πρᾶξις βέβαιοῖ.
Ὅτι δὲ διαφέρει τὸ ἐπισκοπικὸν ἀξίωμα τοῦ ἁπλῶς ἱερέως, δῆλον. Ὁ γὰρ ἱερεὺς χειροτονεῖται ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐπισκόπου, ἐπίσκοπος δὲ οὐ χειροτονεῖται ὑπὸ ἱερέως, ἀλλ’ ὑπὸ δύο ἢ τριῶν ἀρχιερέων, ὡς ὁ ἀποστολικὸς βούλεται κανών. Καὶ ὁ μὲν ἱερεὺς ἐκλέγεται ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐπισκόπου, ὁ δὲ ἀρχιερεὺς οὐκ ἐκλέγεται ὑπὸ τῶν ἱερέων, εἴτουν πρεσβυτέρων, οὐτ’ ἐκλέγεται ὑπὸ πολιτικῶν ἀρχόντων, κἂν καὶ ἀρετῇ διαφέρωσιν, ἀλλ’ ὑπὸ τῆς συνόδου τῆς ἀνωτάτω Ἐκκλησίας τοῦ κλίματος ἐκείνου, ἐν ᾧ κεῖται ἡ πόλις ἡ δεξομένη τὸν χειροτονηθησόμενον, ἢ τουλάχιστον ὑπὸ τῆς συνόδου τῆς ἐπαρχίας ἐκείνης, ἐν ᾗ δεῖ γίνεσθαι τὸν ἐπίσκοπον. Εἰ δέ ποτε καὶ ἡ πόλις ἐκλέξοι, ἀλλ’ οὐχ ἁπλῶς· ἡ γὰρ ἐκλογὴ τῇ συνόδῳ ἀναφέρεται, καὶ εἰ μὲν δόξοι ταύτην κατὰ κανόνας καλῶς ἔχειν, ὁ ἐκλεχθεὶς προβάλλεται διὰ τῆς χειροθεσίας μὲν τῶν ἐπισκόπων, τῇ ἐπικλήσει δὲ τοῦ παναγίου Πνεύματος, εἰ δὲ μή, ὃν βούλεται ἡ σύνοδος, ἐκεῖνος καὶ προβιβάζεται. Καὶ ὁ μὲν ἱερεὺς εἰς ἑαυτὸν σῴζει τὴν ἣν εἴληφεν ἐξουσίαν καὶ χάριν τῆς ἱερωσύνης, ὁ ἐπίσκοπος δὲ καὶ ἑτέροις μεταδίδωσι. Καὶ ὁ μὲν ἤδη λαβὼν τὸ τῆς ἱερωσύνης ἀξίωμα ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐπισκόπου, βάπτισμα μόνον τελεῖ τὸ ἅγιον καὶ εὐχέλαιον, ἱερουργεῖ τὴν ἀναίμακτον θυσίαν καὶ μεταδίδωσι τῷ λαῷ τὸ πανάγιον σῶμα καὶ αἷμα τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, χρίει τοὺς βαπτιζομένους τῷ ἁγίῳ μύρῳ, στεφανοῖ τοὺς κατὰ νόμον γαμοῦντας εὐσεβεῖς, εὔχεται ὑπὲρ τῶν ἀσθενῶν, καὶ ὑπὲρ πάσης σωτηρίας καὶ ἀληθείας ἐπιγνώσεως πάντων ἀνθρώπων, ἐξαιρέτως δὲ ὑπὲρ τῆς τῶν εὐσεβῶν ζώντων καὶ τεθνεώτων ἀφέσεως καὶ συγχωρήσεως τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν. Εἰ δὲ καὶ δοκιμῇ καὶ ἀρετῇ διαφέροι, λαβὼν ἐξουσίαν παρὰ τοῦ ἐπισκόπου, διορθοῖ τοὺς πρὸς αὐτὸν ἐρχομένους εὐσεβεῖς, καὶ εἰς τὴν πρὸς κτῆσιν τῆς οὐρανίου βασιλείας ὁδὸν ποδηγετεῖ, καὶ κῆρυξ τοῦ ἱεροῦ προχειρίζεται εὐαγγελίου. Ὁ δὲ ἀρχιερεὺς καὶ τούτων ἁπάντων διάκονός ἐστιν, ἐπειδὴ αὐτός ἐστιν, ὡς εἴρηται, πηγὴ τῶν θείων μυστηρίων καὶ χαρισμάτων διὰ τοῦ ἁγίου Πνεύματος, καὶ τὸ ἅγιον μύρον μονώτατος ἐπιτελεῖ, καὶ αἱ χειροτονίαι πασῶν τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ τάξεων καὶ βαθμῶν τούτου εἰσὶν ἴδιαι, καὶ κατὰ πρῶτον καὶ ὑπέρτερον λόγον οὗτος δεσμεῖ καὶ λύει, καὶ Θεῷ ἡ κρίσις εὐαπόδεκτος, ὡς ὁ Κύριος εἴρηκε, καὶ τὸ ἱερὸν εὐαγγέλιον διδάσκει, καὶ τῆς εὐσεβοῦς ὑπερμαχεῖ πίστεως, καὶ τοὺς παρακούοντας ὡς ἐθνικοὺς καὶ τελώνας τῆς Ἐκκλησίας ἀποδιΐστησι, καὶ τοὺς αἱρετικοὺς ἀφορισμῷ καὶ ἀναθέματι καθυποβάλλει, καὶ τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ τίθησιν ὑπὲρ τῶν προβάτων. Ἐξ ὧν καταφανές ἐστιν, ἀναντιρρήτως διαφέρειν τὸν ἐπίσκοπον τοῦ ἁπλῶς ἱερέως, καὶ πλὴν αὐτοῦ μὴ δύνασθαι πάντας τοὺς ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ ἱερεῖς Ἐκκκλησίαν Θεοῦ ποιμάναι ἢ ὅλως κυβερνῆσαι.
Ἀλλὰ καλῶς λέγεταί τινι τῶν πατέρων, οὐ ῥᾴδιον αἱρετικὸν ἄνδρα συνετὸν εὑρεῖν. Καταλιπόντες γὰρ οὗτοι τὴν Ἐκκλησίαν, ἐγκατελείφθησαν ὑπὸ τοῦ ἁγίου Πνεύματος, καὶ οὐκ ἔμεινεν ἑαυτοῖς σύνεσις, οὔτε φῶς, ἀλλὰ σκότος καὶ πώρωσις. Εἰ γὰρ μὴ τοιαῦτα πεπόνθασιν, οὐκ ἂν πρὸς τὰ φανερώτατα ἀντιτείναιντο, ἐξ ὧν ἐστι καὶ τὸ τῆς ἐπισκοπῆς μέγα ὄντως μυστήριον, ὑπὸ τῆς Γραφῆς διδασκόμενον, ὑπό τε πάσης Ἐκκλησιαστικῆς ἱστορίας καὶ συγγραφῆς ἁγίων συγγραφόμενόν τε καὶ μαρτυρούμενον, καὶ ὑπὸ τῆς Καθολικῆς Ἐκκλησίας ἀεὶ γινόμενόν τε καὶ ὁμολογούμενον.
We believe to be members of the Catholic Church all the faithful, and only the faithful; who, forsooth, having received the blameless faith of the Saviour Christ, from Christ himself, and the Apostles, and the Holy Ecumenical Synods, adhere to the same without wavering; although some of them may be guilty of all manner of sins. For unless the Faithful, even when living in sin, were members of the Church, they could not be judged by the Church. But now being judged by her, and called to repentance, and guided into the way of her salutary precepts, though they may be still defiled with sins, for this only, that they have not fallen into despair, and that they cleave to the Catholic and Orthodox faith, they are, and are regarded as, members of the Catholic Church.
Πιστεύομεν μέλη τῆς Καθολικῆς Ἐκκλησίας εἶναι πάντας καὶ μόνους τοὺς πιστούς, τοὺς τὴν τοῦ Σωτῆρος Χριστοῦ δηλαδὴ ἀμώμητον πίστιν (ὑπό τε ἐκείνου τοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ τῶν ἀποστόλων καὶ τῶν ἁγίων οἰκουμενικῶν συνόδων παραδοθεῖσαν, κηρυχθεῖσαν καὶ ἑρμηνευθεῖσαν ἀδιστάκτως πρεσβεύοντας, κἂν καί τινες ἐξ αὐτῶν ἁμαρτίαις παντοίαις ὑπεύθυνοι εἶεν. Εἰ γὰρ μὴ ἦν μέλη τῆς Ἐκκλησίας οἱ πιστοὶ μέν, ἁμαρτίαις δὲ συζῶντες, οὐκ ἂν ὑπὸ τῆς Ἐκκλησίας ἐκρίνοντο. Νῦν δὲ κρινόμενοι ὑπ’ αὐτῆς, εἴς τε μετάνοιαν προσκαλούμενοι, καὶ εἰς τὴν τρίβον τῶν σωτηρίων ἐντολῶν ποδηγετούμενοι, κἂν καὶ ἔτι ἁμαρτίαις ῥυπαίνοιντο, μόνον δι’ αὐτὸ τοῦτο, ὅτι οὐ πεπτώκασιν εἰς ἀπόγνωσιν, καὶ ὅτι τῆς καθολικῆς καὶ εὐσεβοῦς ἀντέχονται πίστεως, μέλη τῆς Καθολικῆς Ἐκκλησίας εἰσὶ καὶ γινώσκονται.
We believe the Catholic Church to be taught by the Holy Spirit. For he is the true Paraclete; whom Christ sendeth from the Father (cf. John 25.26) to teach the truth (cf. John 26.13), and to drive away darkness from the minds of the Faithful. The teaching of the Holy Spirit, however, doth not immediately, but through the Holy Fathers and Leaders of the Catholic Church, illuminate the Church. For as all Scripture is, and is called, the word of the Holy Spirit; not that it was spoken immediately by him, but that it was spoken by him through the Apostles and Prophets; so also the Church is taught indeed by the Life-giving Spirit, but through the medium of the holy Fathers and Doctors (whose rule is acknowledged to be the Holy and Ecumenical Synods; for we shall not cease to say this ten thousand times); and, therefore, not only are we persuaded, but do profess as true and undoubtedly certain, that it is impossible for the Catholic Church to err, or at all be deceived, or ever to choose falsehood instead of truth. For the All-holy Spirit continually operating through the holy Fathers and Leaders faithfully ministering, delivereth the Church from error of every kind.
Πιστεύομεν ὑπὸ τοῦ ἁγίου Πνεύματος διδάσκεσθαι τὴν Καθολικὴν Ἐκκλησίαν. Αὐτὸ γάρ ἐστιν ὁ ἀληθὴς Παράκλητος, ὃν πέμπει παρὰ τοῦ Πατρὸς ὁ Χριστὸς τοῦ διδάσκειν ἕνεκα τὴν ἀλήθειαν καὶ τὸ σκότος ἀπὸ τῆς τῶν πιστῶν διανοίας ἀποδιώκειν. Ἡ τοῦ ἁγίου Πνεύματος ὅμως διδαχὴ οὐκ ἀμέσως, ἀλλὰ διὰ τῶν ἁγίων πατέρων καὶ καθηγεμόνων τῆς Καθολικῆς Ἐκκλησίας καταγλαΐζει τὴν Ἐκκλησίαν. Ὡς γὰρ ἡ πᾶσα Γραφή ἐστί τε καὶ λέγεται λόγος τοῦ ἁγίου Πνεύματος, οὐχ ὅτι ἀμέσως ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ ἐλαλήθη, ἀλλ’ ὅτι ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ διὰ τῶν ἀποστόλων καὶ προφητῶν, οὕτω καὶ ἡ Ἐκκλησία διδάσκεται μὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ ζωαρχικοῦ Πνεύματος, ἀλλὰ διὰ μέσου τῶν ἁγίων πατέρων καὶ διδασκάλων (ὧν κανὼν μετὰ τῆς Γραφῆς καὶ ἔσχατον κριτήριον αἱ οἰκουμενικαὶ ἅγιαι σύνοδοι) καὶ διὰ τοῦτο οὐ μόνον πεπείσμεθα, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀληθὲς καὶ βέβαιον ἀναμφιβόλως εἶναι ὁμολογοῦμεν, τὴν Καθολικὴν Ἐκκλησίαν ἀδύνατον ἁμαρτῆσαι ἢ ὅλως πλανηθῆναι ἤ ποτε τὸ ψεῦδος ἀντὶ τῆς ἀληθείας ἐκλέξαι. Τὸ γὰρ πανάγιον Πνεῦμα, ἀείποτε ἐνεργοῦν διὰ τῶν πιστῶς διακονούντων ἁγίων πατέρων καὶ καθηγεμόνων, πάσης ὁποιασοῦν πλάνης τὴν Ἐκκλησίαν ἀπαλλάττει.
We believe a man to be not simply justified through faith alone, but through faith which worketh through love, that is to say, through faith and works. But [the notion] that faith fulfiling the function of a hand layeth hold on the righteousness which is in Christ, and applied it unto us for salvation, we know to be far from all Orthodoxy. For faith so understood would be possible in all, and so none could miss salvation, which is obviously false. But on the contrary, we rather believe that it is not the correlative of faith, but the faith which is in us, justifieth through works, with Christ. But we regard works not as witnesses certifying our calling, but as being fruits themselves, through which faith becomes efficacious, and as in themselves meriting, through the Divine promises [cf. 2 Cor. 5.10] that each of the Faithful may received what is done through his own body, whether it be good or bad, forsooth.
Πιστεύομεν οὐ διὰ πίστεως ἁπλῶς μόνης δικαιοῦσθαι τὸν ἄνθρωπον, ἀλλὰ διὰ πίστεως ἐνεργουμένης διὰ τῆς ἀγάπης, ταὐτὸν εἰπεῖν, διὰ τῆς πίστεως καὶ τῶν ἔργων. Τὸ δὲ τὴν πίστιν χειρὸς ἔργον ἀποπληροῦσαν ἀντιλαμβάνεσθαι τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ δικαιοσύνης καὶ προσάπτειν ἡμῖν εἰς σωτηρίαν, πόρρῳ πάσης εὐσεβείας γινώσκομεν. Οὕτω γὰρ ἐννοούμενη ἡ πίστις πᾶσιν ἐφαρμοσθείη, καὶ οὐκ ἂν εἴη ὁ μὴ σῳζόμενος, ὅπερ ἄντικρυς ψεῦδός ἐστιν. Τοὐναντίον δὲ μᾶλλον πιστεύομεν, ὅτι οὐ τὸ τῆς πίστεως ἀναφορικόν, ἀλλὰ τὴν οὖσαν ἐν ἡμῖν πίστιν διὰ τῶν ἔργων δικαιοῦν ἡμᾶς παρὰ Χριστοῦ. Ἐννοοῦμεν δὲ τὰ ἔργα οὐ μάρτυρας τὴν ἡμετέραν κλῆσιν ἐπιβεβαιοῦντας, ἀλλὰ καρποὺς καθ’ ἑαυτοὺς ὄντας, δι’ ὧν ἡ πίστις λαμβάνει τὸ ἔμπρακτον, καὶ καθ’ ἑαυτὰ ἄξια διὰ τῆς θείας ἐπαγγελίας τοῦ κομίσασθαι ἕκαστον τῶν πιστῶν τὰ διὰ τοῦ σώματος αὐτῷ πεπραγμένα, εἴτε ἀγαθὸν εἴτε κακὸν δηλονότι.
We believe man in falling by the [original] transgression to have become comparable and like unto the beasts, that is, to have been utterly undone, and to have fallen from his perfection and impassibility, yet not to have lost the nature and power which he had received from the supremely good God. For otherwise he would not be rational, and consequently not man; but to have the same nature, in which he was created, and the same power of his nature, that is free-will, living and operating. So as to be by nature able to choose and do what is good, and to avoid and hate what is evil. For it is absurd to say that the nature which was created good by him who is supremely good lacketh the power of doing good. For this would be to make that nature evil – than which what could be more impious? For the power of working dependeth upon nature, and nature upon its author, although in a different manner. And that a man is able by nature to do what is good, even our Lord himself intimateth, saying, even the Gentiles love those that love them (Matt. 5.46; Luke 6.32). But this is taught most plainly by Paul also, in Romans ch. 2.14 and elsewhere expressly, saying in so many words, “The Gentiles which have no law do by nature the things of the law”. From which it is also manifest that the good which a man may do cannot forsooth be sin. For it is impossible that what is good can be evil. Albeit, being done by nature only, and tending to form the natural character of the doer, but not the spiritual, it contributeth not unto salvation thus alone without faith, nor yet indeed unto condemnation, for it is not possible that good, as such, can be the cause of evil. But in the regenerated, what is wrought by grace, and with grace, maketh the doer perfect, and rendereth him worthy of salvation.
A man, therefore, before he is regenerated, is able by nature to incline to what is good, and to choose and work moral good. But for the regenerated to do spiritual good – for the works of the believer being contributory to salvation and wrought by supernatural grace are properly called spiritual – it is necessary that he be guided and prevented by grace, as hath been said in treating of predestination; so that he is not able of himself to do any work worthy of a Christian life, although he hath it in his own power to will, or not to will, to co-operate with grace.
Πιστεύομεν τὸν ἄνθρωπον κατολισθήσαντα τῇ παραβάσει παρασυμβληθῆναι καὶ ὁμοιωθῆναι τοῖς κτήνεσι, τουτ’ ἔστιν, ἀμαυρωθῆναι καὶ τῆς τελειότητος καὶ ἀπαθείας ἐκπεσεῖν, οὐ μὴν δὲ καὶ τῆς ἧς ἔτυχε παρὰ τοῦ ἄκρως ἀγαθοῦ Θεοῦ φύσεως καὶ ἐνεργείας ἐξεστηκέναι· οὕτω γὰρ οὐκ ἂν ἦν λογικός, καὶ ἐπομένως οὐδ’ ἄνθρωπος· ἀλλ’ ἔχειν τὴν φύσιν αὐτήν, ᾗ ἔκτισται, καὶ τὴν τῆς φύσεως ἐνέργειαν, ἥτις ἐστὶ τὸ αὐτεξούσιον, ζῶσαν καὶ ἐνεργόν· ὥστε κατὰ φύσιν δύνασθαι αἱρεῖσθαι μὲν καὶ ἐργάζεσθαι τὸ καλόν, φεύγειν δὲ καὶ μυσάττεσθαι τὸ κακόν. Ἄτοπον γὰρ τὸ τὴν καλὴν παρὰ τοῦ ἄκρως ἀγαθοῦ δημιουργηθεῖσαν φύσιν ἄμοιρον ἀγαθῆς ἐνεργείας ὁμολογεῖν· τοῦτο γὰρ κακὴν εἶναι τὴν φύσιν λέγειν ἐστὶν (οὗ τί ἀσεβεστερον;)· ἡ γὰρ ἐνέργεια τῆς φύσεως ἤρτηται, ἡ φύσις δὲ τοῦ δημιουργοῦ· εἰ καὶ ὁ τρόπος διαφέρει. Ὅτι δὲ δύναται ὁ ἄνθρωπος φύσει ἐργάζεσθαι τὸ ἀγαθόν, ὑπαινίττεται μὲν καὶ ὁ Κύριος λέγων, καὶ τοὺς ἐθνικοὺς ἀγαπᾶν τοὺς ἀγαπῶντας αὐτούς, διδάσκεται δὲ σαφέστατα καὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ Παύλου: Ρωμ. αʹ κεφ. ιθʹ, καὶ ἀλλαχοῦ ῥητῶς, ἐν οἷς φησι, τὰ μὴ νόμον ἔχοντα ἔθνη φύσει τὰ τοῦ νόμου ποιεῖν. Ἐξ ὧν φανερὸν καὶ τοῦτο, ὅτι δηλαδὴ ἀδύνατον, ὅ,τι ποιήσει ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἀγαθόν, ἁμαρτίαν εἶναι. Τὸ γὰρ καλὸν ἀδύνατον κακὸν εἶναι. Γινόμενον μέντοι φύσει μόνῃ καὶ ψυχικὸν ἐῶν, οὐχὶ δὲ καὶ πνευματικὸν ποιοῦν τὸν μετερχόμενον, οὐ συμβάλλεται πρὸς σωτηρίαν ἁπλῶς ἄνευ πίστεως. Πρὸς γὰρ τὸ ἀτελὲς εἶναι, καὶ ὅλως ἀδύνατόν ἐστιν· ἀτελὲς μέν, ὅτι ἄνευ τῆς γνώσεως καὶ ἐργασίας τῶν τιμίων καὶ μεγίστων παραγγελμάτων, οἷον μὴ ἐλεεῖν πρὸς τὸ θεαθῆναι, ἀγαπᾶν καὶ εὔχεσθαι ὑπὲρ τῶν ἐχθρῶν, ἀγαθοποιοῦντας λέγειν ἀχρείους εἶναι, ἐν πνεύματι καὶ ἀληθείᾳ προσκυνεῖν τῷ Θεῷ, καὶ τῶν παραπλησίων δεδωρημένων διὰ τοῦ καλέσαντος ἡμᾶς διὰ δόξης καὶ ἀρετῆς, οὐ συμβάλλεται τὰ φύσει ἐνεργούμενα καλὰ πρὸς σωτηρίαν. Ὅλως δὲ ἀδύνατόν ἐστιν, ὅτι τῆς ὀρθῆς καὶ καθολικῆς περὶ τῆς ἁγίας τριάδος τοῦ ἑνὸς καὶ μόνου Θεοῦ πίστεως, τοῦ θείου ἐλέους, καὶ τῆς θείας σαρκώσεως, καὶ τῶν παθημάτων τοῦ Κυρίου, καὶ τῶν μυστηρίων ὑστέρηται· ἀλλ’ οὐδὲ μὴν πρὸς κατάκρισιν· οὐδὲ γὰρ ἐνδέχεται τὸ καλόν, ᾖ τοιοῦτον, κακοῦ γενέσθαι αἰτίαν. Ἐν τοῖς ἀναγεννηθεῖσι δέ, ὑπὸ τῆς χάριτος καὶ μετὰ τῆς χάριτος ἐνεργούμενον, τέλειον ἀπεργάζεται καὶ σωτηρίας ἄξιον ποιεῖται τὸν ἐνεργοῦντα.
Ὁ ἄνθρωπος τοιγαροῦν πρὸ τῆς ἀναγεννήσεως δύναται φύσει κλίνειν πρὸς τὸ καλὸν καὶ αἱρεῖσθαι καὶ ἐργάζεσθαι τὸ ἠθικὸν καλόν, οὐκ ἀπευθύνεται δὲ πρὸς τὴν μακαριότητα· ἡ γὰρ φυσικὴ ἐνέργεια φυσικὸν ἔχει τέλος, οὐ θεῖον καὶ μακάριον. Ἀναγεννηθεὶς δέ, ἵνα ποιῇ τὸ πνευματικὸν καλόν, (σωτηρίας γὰρ ὄντα παραίτια τοῦ πιστοῦ τὰ ἔργα καὶ ὑπὸ χάριτος ὑπερφυοῦς ἐνεργούμενα, καὶ πνευματικὰ εἰκότως ὀνομάζεται), ἀνάγκη προηγεῖσθαι καὶ προφθάνειν τὴν χάριν, ὃν τρόπον εἴρηται ἐν τοῖς περὶ προορισμοῦ, ὥστε μηδὲν δύνασθαι ἐξ ἑαυτοῦ τῆς κατὰ Χριστὸν ζωῆς ἄξιον ἔργον ἐκτελέσαι, ἐξ ἑαυτοῦ μέντοι ἔχειν τὸ θελῆσαι ἢ μὴ θελῆσαι τῇ χάριτι συγκατατεθῆναι.
We believe that there are in the Church Evangelical Mysteries, and that they are seven. For a less or a greater number of the Mysteries we have not in the Church; since any number of the Mysteries other than seven is the product of heretical madness. And the seven of them were instituted in the Sacred Gospel, and are gathered from the same, like the other dogmas of the Catholic Faith. For in the first place our Lord instituted Holy Baptism by the words, “Go ye and make disciples of all the nations, baptising them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit” (Matt. 28.19); and by the words, “He that believeth and is baptised shall be saved, but he that disbelieveth shall be condemned” (Mark 16.16).
And that of Confirmation, that is to say, of the Holy Myron or Holy Chrism, by the words, “But ye – tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high” (Luke 24.49). With which they were endued by the coming of the Holy Spirit, and this the Mystery of Confirmation signifeth; concerning which Paul also discourseth in the Second Epistle to the Corinthians, ch. 1, and Dionysius the Areopagite more explicitly.
And the Priesthood by the words, “This do ye for my memorial” (Luke 22.19); and by the words, “Whatsoever ye shall bind and loose upon the earth shall be bound and loosed in the heavens” (Matt. 18.18).
And the unbloody Sacrifice by the words, “Take, eat ye; This is my Body” (Matt. 26.26; Mark 14.22; cf. Luke 22.19; 1 Cor. 2.24); and “Drink ye all of it; this is my Blood of the New Testament” (Matt. 26.27; cf. Mark 14.24; Luke 22.20; 1 Cor. 2.25); and by the words, “Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of Man, ye have not life in yourselves” (John 6.53).
And Marriage, when, having recited the things which had been spoken thereof in the Old [Testament], he, as it were, set his seal thereto by the words, “Those whom God hath joined together, let not man put asunder” (Matt. 19.6), and this the divine Apostle also calleth a great Mystery (Eph. 5.32).
And Penance, with which is joined sacramental confession, by the words, “Whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whosesoever sins ye retain, they are retained” (John 22.23); and by the words, “Except ye repent, ye shall [all] likewise perish” (Luke 13.3, 5). And lastly, the Holy Oil or Prayer-Oil is spoken of in Mark (Mark 6.13) and is expressly witnessed to by the Lord’s brother (James 5.14).
And the Mysteries consist of something natural, and of something supernatural; and are not bare signs of the promises of God. For then they would not differ from circumcision – than which [notion] what could be worse? And we acknowledge them to be, of necessity, efficient means of grace to the receivers. But we reject, as alien to Christian doctrine, the notion that the integrity of the Mystery requireth the use of the earthly thing [i.e. dependeth upon its reception]; for this is contrary to the Mystery of the Offering [i.e. the Sacrament of the Eucharist], which being instituted by the Substantial Word, and hallowed by the invocation of the Holy Spirit, is perfected by the presence of the thing signified, to wit, of the Body and Blood of Christ. And the perfecting thereof necessarily precedeth its use. For if it were not perfect before its use, he that useth it not aright could not eat and drink judgment unto himself (1 Cor. 11.26, 28, 29); since he would be partaking of mere bread and wine. But now, he that partaketh unworthily eateth and drinketh judgment unto himself; so that not in its use, but even before its use, the Mystery of the Eucharist hath its perfection. Moreover, we reject as something abominable and pernicious the notion that when faith is weak the integrity of the Mystery is impaired. For heretics who abjure their heresy and join the Catholic Church are received by the Church; although they received their valid Baptism with weakness of faith. Wherefore, when they afterwards become possessed of the perfect faith, they are not again baptised.
Πιστεύομεν τὰ εὐαγγελικὰ μυστήρια ἐν τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ εἶναι, κἀκεῖνα εἶναι ἑπτά. Ἐλάττονα γὰρ ἢ μείζονα ἀριθμὸν μυστηρίων ἐν τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ οὐκ ἔχομεν· ἐπειδὴ ὁ παρὰ τὸν ἑπτὰ τῶν μυστηρίων ἀριθμὸς αἱρετικῆς φρενοβλαβείας ἐστὶν ἀποκύημα. Ὁ δὲ τῶν ἑπτὰ παρὰ τοῦ ἱεροῦ εὐαγγελίου νομοθετεῖται καὶ συνάγεται, ὡς καί τὰ λοιπὰ τῆς καθολικῆς πίστεως δόγματα. Αὐτίκα γὰρ ὁ Κύριος τὸ μὲν ἅγιον βάπτισμα διὰ τοῦ, «πορευθέντες μαθητεύσατε πάντα τὰ ἔθνη, βαπτίζοντες αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ Υἱοῦ καὶ τοῦ ἁγίου Πνευματος», καὶ τοῦ, «ὁ πιστεύσας καὶ βαπτισθεὶς σωθήσεται, ὁ δὲ ἀπιστήσας κατακριθήσεται», παρέδωκεν.
Τὸ δὲ τῆς βεβαιώσεως, ταὐτὸν εἰπεῖν, τοῦ ἁγίου μύρου καὶ ἁγίου χρισματος, διὰ τοῦ, «ὑμεῖς δὲ καθήσατε ἐν τῇ πόλει Ἱερουσαλήμ, ἕως ἂν ἐνδύσησθε δύναμιν ἐξ ὕψους», ἣν ἐνεδύσαντο τῇ ἐπιδημίᾳ τοῦ ἁγίου Πνεύματος, καὶ ταύτην δηλοῖ τὸ τῆς βεβαιώσεως μυστήριον, περὶ οὗ καὶ Παῦλος: βʹ πρὸς Κοριν. κεφ. αʹ, καὶ τρανότερον διὰ τοῦ Ἀρεοπαγίτου Διονυσίου διαλέγεται.
Τὴν δὲ ἱερωσύνην διὰ τοῦ, «τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν», καὶ διὰ τοῦ, «ὅσα δήσητε καὶ λύσητε ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, ἔσται δεδεμένα καὶ λελυμένα ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς».
Τὴν δὲ ἀναίμακτον θυσίαν διὰ τοῦ, «λάβετε, φάγετε· τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ σῶμά μου», καὶ «πίετε ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες, τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ αἷμά μου τὸ τῆς καινῆς διαθήκης», καὶ τοῦ, «ἐὰν μὴ φάγητε τὴν σάρκα τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ πίητε αὐτοῦ τὸ αἷμα, οὐκ ἔχετε ζωὴν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς».
Τὸν δὲ γάμον μετὰ τὸ εἰπεῖν τὰ ἐν τῇ παλαιᾷ περὶ αὐτοῦ εἰρημένα διὰ τῆς οἷον ἐπισφραγίσεως τοῦ, «οὓς ὁ Θεὸς συνέζευξεν, ἄνθρωπος μὴ χωριζέτω», ὃν καὶ ὁ θεῖος ἀπόστολος μέγα ἀποκαλεῖ μυστήριον.
Τὴν δὲ μετάνοιαν, ᾗ τινί ἐστι σύμμικτος ἡ μυστηριακὴ ἐξομολόγησις, διὰ τοῦ, «ἄν τινων ἀφῆτε τὰς ἁμαρτίας, ἀφίενται αὐτοῖς, ἄν τινων κρατῆτε, κεκράτηνται», καὶ τοῦ, «ἐὰν μὴ μετανοήσητε, ὡσαύτως ἀπολεῖσθε».
Τὸ δὲ ἅγιον ἔλαιον, εἰτουν εὐχέλαιον, λέγεται μὲν παρὰ τῷ Μάρκῳ, μαρτυρεῖται δὲ ῥητῶς ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀδελφοθέου.
Σύγκειται δὲ τὰ μυστήρια ἔκ τε φυσικοῦ καὶ ὑπερφυοῦς. Οὐκ εἰσὶ δὲ ψιλὰ σημεῖα τῶν ἐπαγγελιῶν τοῦ Θεοῦ· οὕτω γὰρ οὐκ ἂν διενήνοχε τῆς περιτομῆς, οὗ τί ἀθλιώτερον; Ὁμολογοῦμεν δ’ αὐτὰ εἶναι ὄργανα δραστικὰ τοῖς μυουμένοις χάριτος ἐξ ἀνάγκης. Ἀποπτύομεν δὲ ὡς ἀλλότριον τῆς χριστιανικῆς διδασκαλίας τὸ τὴν ἀκεραιότητα τῶν μυστηρίων ἁπλῶς ἀπαιτεῖν τὴν χρῆσιν τοῦ γηίνου πράγματος· ἀντίκειται γὰρ τῷ μυστηρίῳ τῆς προσφορᾶς, ὅ, ῥήματι ὑπαρκτικῷ νομοθετηθὲν καὶ τῇ ἐπικλήσει τοῦ παναγίου Πνεύματος ἁγιασθέν, τελειοῦται τῇ ὑπάρξει τοῦ σημαινομένου, τοῦ σώματος δηλαδὴ καὶ αἵματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ. Καὶ προηγεῖται ἡ τούτου τελείωσις ἀναγκαίως τῆς χρήσεως· εἰ γὰρ πρὸ τῆς χρήσεως μὴ ἦν τέλειον, οὐκ ἂν ὁ κακῶς χρώμενος κρῖμα ἑαυτῷ ἤσθιε καὶ ἔπινεν, ἐπεὶ ψιλοῦ ἄρτου καὶ οἴνου ἦν μετεσχηκώς· νῦν δ’ ἀναξίως μετέχων, κρῖμα ἑαυτῷ ἐσθίει καὶ πίνει. Ὥστε οὐκ ἐν τῇ χρήσει, ἀλλὰ πρὸ τῆς χρήσεως ἔχει τὸ τῆς εὐχαριστίας μυστήριον τὴν τελείωσιν. Ἔτι ἀπορρίπτομεν ὡς κάθαρμά τι καὶ μίασμα τό, ἐλλιπῶς γὰρ ἐχούσης τῆς πίστεως ζημιοῦται ἡ ὁλοκληρία τοῦ μυστηρίου. Οἱ γὰρ αἱρετικοί, οὓς τὴν αἵρεσιν ἀποσεισαμένους καὶ προστεθέντας τῇ Καθολικῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ, δέχεται ἡ Ἐκκλησία, καίτοι ἐλλιπῆ ἐσχηκότες τὴν πίστιν, τέλειον ἔλαβον τὸ βάπτισμα· ὅθεν τελείαν ὕστερον τὴν πίστιν κεκτημένοι, οὐκ ἀναβαπτίζονται.
We believe Holy Baptism, which was instituted by the Lord, and is conferred in the name of the Holy Trinity, to be of the highest necessity. For without it none is able to be saved, as the Lord saith, “Whosoever is not born of water and of the Spirit, shall in no wise enter into the Kingdom of the Heavens” (John 3.5). And, therefore, it is necessary even for infants, since they also are subject to original sin, and without Baptism are not able to obtain its remission. Which the Lord showed when he said, not of some only, but simply and absolutely, “Whosoever is not born [again]”, which is the same as saying, “All that after the coming of Christ the Saviour would enter into the Kingdom of the Heavens must be regenerated.” And forasmuch as infants are men, and as such need salvation; needing salvation, they need also Baptism. And those that are not regenerated, since they have not received the remission of hereditary sin, are, of necessity, subject to eternal punishment, and consequently cannot without Baptism be saved; so that even infants ought, of necessity, to be baptised. Moreover, infants are saved, as is said in Matthew (Matt. 19.12); but he that is not baptised is not saved. And consequently even infants must of necessity be baptised. And in the Acts (Acts 8.12; 16.33) it is said that the whole houses were baptised, and consequently the infants. To this the ancient Fathers also witness explicitly, and among them Dionysius in his Treatise concerning the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy; and Justin in his fifty-sixty Question, who saith expressly, “And they are vouchsafed the benefits of Baptism by the faith of those that bring them to Baptism.” And Augustine saith that it is an Apostolical tradition, that children are saved through Baptism; and in another place, “The Church giveth to babes the feet of others, that they may come; and the hearts of others, that they may believe; and the tongues of others, that they may promise”; and in another place, “Our mother, the Church, furnisheth them with a particular heart”.
Now the matter of Baptism is pure water, and no other liquid. And it is performed by the Priest only, or in a case of unavoidable necessity, by another man, provided he be Orthodox, and have the intention proper to Divine Baptism. And the effects of Baptism are, to speak concisely, firstly, the remission of the hereditary transgression, and of any sins whatsoever which the baptised may have committed. Secondly, it delivereth him from the eternal punishment, to which he was liable, as well for original sin, as for mortal sins he may have individually committed. Thirdly, it giveth to such immortality; for in justifying them from past sins, it maketh them temples of God. And it may not be said, that any sin is not washed away through Baptism, which may have been previously committed; but to remain, though not imputed. For that were indeed the height of impiety, and a denial, rather than a confession of piety. Yea, forsooth, all sin existing, or committed before Baptism, is blotted out, and is to be regarded as never existing or committed. For the forms of Baptism, and on either hand all the words that precede and that perfect Baptism, do indicate a perfect cleansing. And the same thing even the very names of Baptism do signify. For if Baptism be by the Spirit and by fire (Matt. 3.11), it is manifest that it is in all a perfect cleansing; for the Spirit cleanseth perfectly. If it be light (Heb. 6.4), it dispelleth the darkness. If it be regeneration (Tit. 3.5), old things are passed away. And what are these except sins? If the baptised putteth off the old man (Col. 3.9), then sin also. If he putteth on Christ (Gal. 3.27) then in effect he becometh free from sin through Baptism. For God is far from sinners. This Paul also teacheth more plainly, saying: “As through one [man] we, being many, were made sinners, so through one [are we made] righteous” (Rom. 5.19). And if righteous, then free from sin. For it is not possible for life and death to be in the same [person]. If Christ truly died, then remission of sin throuhgh the Spirit is true also. Hence it is evident that all who are baptised and fall asleep while babes are undoubtedly saved, being predestinated through the death of Christ. Forasmuch as they are without any sin; – without that common [to all], because delivered therefrom by the Divine laver, and without any of their own, because as babes they are incapable of comitting sin; – and consequently are saved. Moreover, Baptism imparteth an indelible character, as doth also the Priesthood. For as it is impossible for any one to receive twice the same order of the Priesthood, so it is impossible for any once rightly baptised, to be again baptised, although he should fall even into myriads of sins, or even into actual apostasy from the Fatih. For when he is willing to return unto the Lord, he receiveth again through the Mystery of Penance the adoption of a son, which he had lost.
Πιστεύομεν τὸ ἅγιον βάπτισμα, τὸ διαταγὲν μὲν παρὰ τοῦ Κυρίου, γινόμενον δὲ ἐν ὀνόματι τῆς ἁγίας Τριάδος, εἶναι τῶν ἀναγκαιότατων. Χωρὶς γὰρ αὐτοῦ οὐδεὶς δύναται σωθῆναι, ὡς ὁ Κύριος φησίν, ὅστις οὐ μὴ γεννηθῇ ἐξ ὕδατος καὶ πνεύματος, οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθῃ εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τῶν οὐρανῶν, Καὶ διὰ τοῦτό ἐστιν ἀναγκαῖον καὶ τοῖς νηπίοις, ἐπειδὴ κἀκεῖνα ὑπόκειται τῇ ἀρχεγόνῳ ἁμαρτίᾳ, καὶ χωρὶς τοῦ βαπτίσματος οὐ δύναται τυχεῖν τῆς ἀφέσεως. Ὅπερ ὁ Κύριος δεικνύων οὐκ ἔφη μερικῶς, ἀλλ’ ἁπλῶς καὶ καθόλου, «ὅστις οὐ μὴ γεννηθῇ», ὃ ταὐτόν ἐστι τῷ, πάντας τοὺς μετὰ τὴν ἀνάστασιν τοῦ Σωτῆρος Χριστοῦ εἰσελευσομένους ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν δεῖ ἀναγεννηθῆναι. Εἰ δὲ τὰ νήπια ἄνθρωποι, εἴπερ καὶ ταῦτα δεῖται σωτηρίας, δεῖται καὶ τοῦ βαπτίσματος· καὶ τὰ μὴ ἀναγεννηθέντα, ὡς μὴ τὴν ἄφεσιν τῆς προπατορικῆς ἁμαρτίας λαβόντα, ὑπόκειται τῇ ἀϊδίῳ τῆς ἁμαρτίας ἐκείνης ποινῇ, καὶ ἑπομένως οὐ σῴζεται χωρὶς τοῦ βαπτίσματος. Ὥστε δεῖ ἀναγκαίως καὶ τὰ νήπια βαπτίζεσθαι. Ἔτι τὰ νήπια σῴζεται, ὡς λέγεται παρὰ τῷ Ματθαίῳ, ὁ δὲ μὴ βαπτισθεὶς οὐ σῴζεται· καὶ τὰ νήπια ἄρα ἀναγκαίως βαπτισθήσεται. Καὶ ἐν ταῖς Πράξεσι λέγεται, ὅτι πᾶσαι αἱ οἰκίαι ἐβαπτίζοντο, ἄρα καὶ τὰ νήπια. Τοῦτο καὶ οἱ πάλαι πατέρες μαρτυροῦσι σαφῶς, ἐν οἷς καὶ Διονύσιος ἐν τῷ περὶ Ἐκκλησιαστικῆς Ἱεραρχίας καὶ Ἰουστῖνος: νζʹ ζητήματι, ὃς λέγει ῥητῶς: «ἀξιοῦνται δὲ τῶν διὰ τοῦ βαπτίσματος ἀγαθῶν τῇ πίστει τῶν προσφερόντων αὐτὰ τῷ βαπτίσματι»· καὶ Αὐγουστῖνος παράδοσιν εἶναί φησιν ἀποστολικήν, τὰ παιδία διὰ τοῦ βαπτίσματος σῴζεσθαι· καὶ ἀλλαχόσε ἡ Ἐκκλησία τοῖς βρέφεσιν ἑτέρων πόδας ἐντίθησιν ὅπως ἔρχωνται, ἑτέρων καρδίας ὅπως πιστεύωσιν, ἑτέρων γλῶσσαν ὅπως ἐπαγγέλλωνται· καὶ ἀλλαχοῦ ἡ μήτηρ Ἐκκλησία μερικὴν καρδίαν ἐκείνοις χαρίζεται.
Γίνεται δὲ τὸ βάπτισμα δι’ ὕλης μὲν ὕδατος καθαροῦ καὶ οὐδενὸς ἑτέρου ὑγροῦ. Ἀποτελεῖται δὲ διὰ μόνου τοῦ ἱερέως, καὶ κατ’ ἀνάγκην ἀπροφάσιστον ἔχει γίνεσθαι καὶ δι’ ἑτέρου ἀνθρώπου, πλὴν ὀρθοδόξου καὶ σκοπὸν ἔχοντος τὸν ἁρμόδιον τῷ θείῳ βαπτίσματι. Ἀποτελέσματα δὲ τοῦ βαπτίσματος, συνελόντι φάναι, πρῶτον, ἡ ἄφεσις τοῦ προπατορικοῦ πλημμελήματος καὶ ὅσων ἄλλων ἁμαρτιῶν πεπραχὼς ἦν ὁ βαπτισθείς· δεύτερον, ῥύεται ἐκεῖνον τῆς ἀϊδίου ποινῆς, ᾗτινι ὑπέκειτο, εἴτε διὰ τὸ ἀρχεγονον ἁμάρτημα, εἴτε δι’ ἃ ἰδικῶς ἔπραξε θανασίμως· τρίτον, δίδωσιν αὐτῷ τὴν ἀθανασίαν· δικαιοῦν γὰρ αὐτὸν τῶν προημαρτημένων, ναὸν Θεοῦ ἀποκαθίστησιν.
Οὐκ ἐστι δ’ εἰπεῖν, μὴ λύεσθαι διὰ τοῦ βαπτίσματος πάσας τὰς ὁπωσοῦν πρὸ τούτου ἁμαρτίας, ἀλλὰ μένειν μέν, οὐκ ἰσχύειν δέ· τοῦτο γὰρ ἀσεβείας τῆς ἐσχάτης ἐστὶ γέμον καὶ ἄρνησις μᾶλλον ἢ ὅλως ὁμολογία εὐσεβείας· ἀλλ’ ὅτι πᾶσα ἁμαρτία πρὸ τοῦ βαπτίσματος οὖσα ἢ γεγονυῖα ἀφανίζεται, καὶ ὡς μὴ οὖσα πότε ἢ γεγονυῖα λογίζεται. Οἱ γὰρ τύποι τοῦ βαπτίσματος πάσας ἐκάθηρον καὶ αἱ προμηνύουσαι καὶ τελειοῦσαι ῥήσεις τὸ βάπτισμα τὴν τελείαν ὑπαινίττουσι κάθαρσιν. Τοῦτ’ αὐτὸ καὶ αὐτὰ τὰ τοῦ βαπτίσματος ὀνόματα παριστῶσιν. Εἰ γὰρ βάπτισμα διὰ πνεύματος καὶ πυρός, εἰ δῆλον ὅτι καὶ τελεία πᾶσιν ἡ κάθαρσις· τὸ γὰρ πνεῦμα τελείως καθαίρει. Εἰ φῶς, τὸ σκότος ἔλυσεν. Εἰ ἀναγέννησις, παρῆλθε τὰ ἀρχαῖα. Τίνα δὲ ταῦτα, εἰ μὴ τὰ ἁμαρτήματα; Εἰ ἀπεκδύεται ὁ βαπτιζόμενος τὸν παλαιὸν ἄνθρωπον, ἄρα καὶ τὴν ἁμαρτίαν. Εἰ ἐνδύεται τὸν Χριστόν, ἄρα ἀναμάρτητος γίνεται ἐνεργείᾳ διὰ τοῦ βαπτίσματος. Μακρὰν γὰρ ἀπὸ ἁμαρτωλῶν ὁ Θεός. Τοῦτο καὶ ὁ Παῦλος διδάσκει τρανότερον λέγων: ὥσπερ διὰ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἁμαρτωλοὶ κατεστάθημεν οἱ πολλοί, οὕτω διὰ τοῦ ἑνὸς δίκαιοι. Εἰ δὲ δίκαιοι, ἄρα ἁμαρτίας ἐλεύθεροι. Οὐ γὰρ δύναται ἐν ταὐτῷ εἶναι τὴν ζωὴν καὶ τὸν θάνατον. Εἰ ἀληθῶς ἀπέθανεν ὁ Χριστός, ἄρα καὶ ἀληθὴς ἡ διὰ τοῦ πνεύματος ἄφεσις.
Ἐντεῦθεν δὲ δῆλον, πάντα τὰ βαπτισθέντα καὶ κοιμηθέντα βρέφη ἀναμφιβόλως σῴζεσθαι, προορισθέντα διὰ τοῦ θανάτου τοῦ Χριστοῦ. Εἰ γὰρ ἐκτὸς πάσης ἦν ἁμαρτίας, κοινῆς μέν, ὅτι ἐλυτρώθησαν τῷ θείῳ λουτρῷ, ἰδικῆς δὲ ὅτι τὰ βρέφη μὴ ἔχοντα ἐνεργείᾳ προαίρεσιν οὐχ ἁμαρτάνει, ἄρα καὶ σῴζεται.
Ἐντίθησι δὲ τὸ βάπτισμα καὶ χαρακτῆρα ἀνεξάλειπτον, ὥσπερ καὶ ἡ ἱερωσύνη. Καθὼς γὰρ ἀδύνατον τὸν αὐτὸν δὶς ἱερωσύνης τυχεῖν τῆς αὐτῆς, οὕτως ἀδύνατον ἀναβαπτισθῆναι τὸν ἅπαξ ὀρθῶς βαπτισθέντα, κἂν καὶ μυρίαις συμβέβηκεν αὐτὸν ὑποπεσεῖν ἁμαρτίαις, ἢ καὶ αὐτῇ ἐξομώσει τῆς πίστεως. Θέλων γὰρ ἐπιστρέψαι πρὸς Κύριον ἀναλαμβάνει τὴν ἣν ἀπώλεσεν υἱοθεσίαν, διὰ τοῦ μυστηρίου τῆς μετανοίας.
We believe the All-holy Mystery of the Sacred Eucharist, which we have enumerated above, fourth in order, to be that which our Lord delivered the night wherein he gave himself up for the life of the world. For taking bread, and blessing, he gave to his holy Disciples and Apostles, saying: “Take, eat ye; This is my Body” (Matt. 26.26). And taking the chalice, and giving thanks, he said: “Drink ye all of it; this is my Blood, which for you is being poured out, for the remission of sins” (Matt. 26.28). In the celebration whereof we believe the Lord Jesus Christ to be present, not typically, nor figuratively, nor by superabundant grace, as in the other Mysteries, nor by a bare presence, as some of the Fathers have said concerning Baptism, or by impanation, so that the Divinity of the Word is united to the set forth bread of the Eucharist hypostatically, as the followers of Luther most ignorantly and wretchedly suppose, but truly and really, so that after the consecration of the bread and of the wine, the bread is transmuted, transubstantiated, converted and transformed into the true Body itself of the Lord, which was born in Bethlehem of the ever-Virgin, was baptised in the Jordan, suffered, was buried, rose again, was received us, sitteth at the right hand of God the Father, and is to come again in the clouds of heaven; and the wine is converted and transubstantiated into the true Blood itself of the Lord, which as he hung upon the Cross, was poured out for the life of the world (John 6.51).
Further, [we believe] that after the consecration of the bread and of the wine, there no longer remaineth the substance of the bread and of the wine, but the Body itself and the Blood of the Lord, under the species and form of bread and wine; that is to say, under the accidents of the bread.
Further, that the all-pure Body itself, and Blood of the Lord is imparted, and entereth into the mouths and stomachs of the cummunicants, whether pious or impious. Nevertheless, they convey to the pious and worthy remission of sins and life eternal; but to the impious and unworthy involve condemnation and eternal punishment.
Further, that the Body and Blood of the Lord are severed and divided by the hands and teeth, though in accident only, that is, in the accidents of the bread and of the wine, under which they are visible and tangible, we do acknowledge; but in themselves to remain entirely unsevered and undivided. Wherefore the Catholic Church also saith: “Broken and distributed is he that is broken, yet not severed; which ever is eaten, yet never consumed, but sanctifying those that partake”, that is worthily.
Further, that in every part, or the smallest division of the transmuted bread and wine there is not a part of the Body and Blood of the Lord – for to say so were blasphemous and wicked – but the entire whole Lord Christ substantially, that is, with his Soul and Divinity, or perfect God and perfect man. So that though there are not many Christs, or Bodies of Christ, but it is one and the same Christ that is truly and really present; and his one Body and his Blood is in all the several Churches of the Faithful; and this is not because the Body of the Lord that is in the Heavens descendeth upon the Altars; but because the bread of the Prothesis set forth in all the several Churches, being changed and transubstantiated, becometh, and is, after consecration, one and the same with that in the heavens. For it is one Body of the Lord in many places, and not many; and therefore this Mystery is the greatest, and is spoken of as wonderful, and comprehensible by faith only, and not by the sophistries of man’s wisdom; whose vain and foolish curiosity in divine things our pious and God-delivered religion rejecteth.
Further, that the Body itself of the Lord and the Blood that are in the Mystery of the Eucharist ought to be honoured in the highest maner, and adored with latria. For one is the adoration of the Holy Trinity, and of the Body and Blood of the Lord. Further, that it is a true and propitiatory Sacrifice offered for all Orthodox, living and dead; and for the benefit of all, as is set forth expressly in the prayers of the Mystery delivered to the Church by the Apostles, in accordance with the command they received of the Lord.
Further, that before its use, immediately after the consecration, and after its use, what is reserved in the Sacred Pixes for the communion of those that are about to depart [i.e. the dying] is the true Body of the Lord, and not in the least different therefrom; so that before its use after the consecration, in its use, and after its use, it is in all respects the true Body of the Lord.
Further, we believe that by the word “transubstantiation” the manner is not explained, by which the bread and wine are changed into the Body and Blood of the Lord, – for that is altogether incomprehensible and impossible, except by God himself, and those who imagine to do so are involved in ignorance and impiety, – but that the bread and the wine are after the consecration, not typically, nor figuratively, nor by superabundant grace, nor by the communication or the presence of the Divinity alone of the Only-begotten, transmuted into the Body and Blood of the Lord; neither is any accident of the bread, or of the wine, by any conversion or alteration, cahnged into any accident of the Body and Blood of Christ, but truly, and really, and substantially, doth the bread become the true Body itself of the Lord, and the wine the Blood itself of the Lord, as is said above. Further, that this Mystery of the Sacred Eucharist can be performed by none other, except only by an Orthodox Priest, who hath received his priesthood from an Orthodox and Canonical Bishop, in accordance with the teaching of the Eastern Church. This is compendiously the doctrine, and true confession, and most ancient tradition of the Catholic Church concerning this Mystery; which must not be departed from in any way by such as would be Orthodox, and who reject the novelties and profane vanities of heretics; but necessarily the tradition of the intuition must be kept whole and unimpaired. For those that transgress the Catholic Church of Christ rejecteth and anathematiseth.
Πιστεύομεν τὸ πανάγιον μυστήριον τῆς ἱερᾶς εὐχαριστίας, ὅπερ ἀνωτέρω κατὰ τάξιν τέταρτον ἐθέμεθα, ἐκεῖνο εἶναι, ὅπερ ὁ Κύριος παρέδωκε τῇ νυκτί, ᾗ παρεδίδου ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ τῆς τοῦ κόσμου ζωῆς. Λαβὼν γὰρ ἄρτον καὶ εὐλόγησας ἔδωκε τοῖς ἁγίοις αὐτοῦ μαθηταῖς καὶ ἀποστόλοις εἰπών: λάβετε, φάγετε· τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ σῶμά μου, καὶ λαβὼν ποτήριον, εὐχαριστήσας εἴρηκε: πίετε ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες, τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ αἷμά μου, τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐκχυνόμενον εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν.
Τούτου ἐν τῇ ἱερουργίᾳ πιστεύομεν παρεῖναι τὸν Κύριον ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν οὐ τυπικῶς, οὐδ’ εἰκονικῶς, οὐδὲ χάριτι ὑπερβαλλούσῃ, ὡς ἐν τοῖς λοιποῖς μυστηρίοις, οὐδὲ κατὰ μόνην παρουσίαν, καθώς τινες τῶν Πατέρων εἰρήκασι περὶ τοῦ βαπτίσματος, οὐδὲ κατ’ ἐναρτισμόν, ὥστε ἑνοῦσθαι τὴν θεότητα τοῦ Λόγου τῷ προκειμένῳ τῆς εὐχαριστίας ἄρτῳ ὑποστατικῶς, καθὼς οἱ ἀπὸ Λουθήρου λίαν ἀμαθῶς καὶ ἀθλίως δοξάζουσιν, ἀλλ’ ἀληθῶς καὶ πραγματικῶς, ὥστε μετὰ τὸν ἁγιασμὸν τοῦ ἄρτου καὶ τοῦ οἴνου μεταβάλλεσθαι, μετουσιοῦσθαι, μεταποιεῖσθαι, μεταρρυθμίζεσθαι τὸν μὲν ἄρτον εἰς αὐτὸ τὸ ἀληθὲς τοῦ Κυρίου σῶμα, ὅπερ ἐγεννήθη ἐν Βηθλεὲμ ἐκ τῆς ἀειπαρθένου καὶ Θεοτόκου Μαρίας, ἐβαπτίσθη ἐν Ἰορδάνῃ, ἔπαθεν, ἐτάφη, ἀνέστη, ἀνελήφθη, κάθηται ἐκ δεξιῶν τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ Πατρός, μέλλει ἐλθεῖν ἐπὶ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ· τὸν δὲ οἶνον μεταποιεῖσθαι καὶ μετουσιοῦσθαι εἰς αὐτὸ τὸ ἀληθὲς τοῦ Κυρίου αἷμα, ὅπερ κρεμαμένου ἐπὶ τοῦ σταυροῦ ἐχύθη ὑπὲρ τῆς τοῦ κόσμου ζωῆς.
Ἔτι μετὰ τὸν ἁγιασμὸν τοῦ ἄρτου καὶ τοῦ οἴνου οὐκ ἔτι μένειν τὴν οὐσίαν τοῦ ἄρτου καὶ τοῦ οἴνου, ἀλλ’ αὐτὸ τὸ σῶμα καὶ τὸ αἷμα τοῦ Κυρίου ἐν τῷ τοῦ ἄρτου καὶ τοῦ οἴνου εἴδει καὶ τύπῳ, ταὐτόν εἰπειν, ὑπὸ τοῖς τοῦ ἄρτου καὶ τοῦ οἴνου συμβεβηκόσιν.
Ἔτι αὐτὸ τὸ πανακήρατον τοῦ Κυρίου σῶμα καὶ αἷμα μεταδίδοσθαι τὸν ὅμοιον τρόπον καὶ ἱερεῦσι καὶ λαϊκοῖς, δι’ ἀμφοτέρων τῶν εἰδῶν δηλονότι, καὶ εἰσδύειν εἰς τὸ στόμα καὶ τὸν στόμαχον τῶν μετεχόντων εὐσεβῶν τε καὶ ἀσεβῶν· πλὴν τοῖς μὲν εὐσεβέσι καὶ ἀξίοις ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν καὶ ζωὴν αἰώνιον προξενεῖν, τοῖς δὲ ἀσεβέσι καὶ ἀναξίοις κατάκρισιν καὶ κόλασιν αἰώνιον παραχωρεῖν.
Ἔτι τέμνεσθαι μὲν καὶ διαιρεῖσθαι εἴτε χερσὶν εἴτε καὶ ὀδοῦσι τὸ σῶμα καὶ τὸ αἷμα τοῦ Κυρίου, κατὰ συμβεβηκὸς μέντοι, ἤτοι κατὰ τὰ συμβεβηκότα τοῦ ἄρτου καὶ τοῦ οἴνου, καθ’ ἃ καὶ ὁρατὰ καὶ ἁπτὰ εἶναι ὁμολογεῖται, καθ’ ἑαυτὰ δὲ μένειν ἄτμητα πάντῃ καὶ ἀδιαίρετα. «Μελίζεται» γάρ, φησί, «καὶ διαμερίζεται, ὁ μελιζόμενος καὶ μὴ διαιρούμενος, ὁ πάντοτε ἐσθιόμενος καὶ μηδέποτε δαπανώμενος, ἀλλὰ τοὺς μετέχοντας (δηλονότι ἀξίως) ἁγιάζων».
Ἔτι ἐν ἑκάστῳ μέρει καὶ τμήματι ἐλαχίστῳ τοῦ μεταβληθέντος ἄρτου καὶ οἴνου οὐκ εἶναι μέρος τοῦ σώματος καὶ αἵματος τοῦ Κυρίου, ἀλλ’ ὅλον ὁλικῶς τὸν δεσπότην Χριστὸν κατ’ οὐσίαν, μετὰ ψυχῆς δηλονότι καὶ θεότητος, ἤτοι τέλειον Θεὸν καὶ τέλειον ἄνθρωπον. Τὸ γὰρ σῶμα τοῦ Χριστοῦ, μὴ ὑπάρχον μυστηριῶδες, ἀλλὰ κατὰ τὴν φυσικὴν ἀκολουθίαν καὶ τὸν διορισμὸν τοῦ σώματος καὶ τῶν μερῶν ὑπάρχον ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, τὸ αὐτὸ ὑπάρχει καὶ ἐν τῷ μυστηρίῳ τῆς εὐχαριστίας, οὐχ ὅτι κάτεισιν, ἀλλ’ ὅτι αὐτὸ ἐκεῖνο ὑπερφυῶς καὶ μυστηριωδῶς πάρεστιν ἐν τῷ μυστηρίῳ. Ὅθεν καὶ πολλῶν γινομένων ἐν τῇ οἰκουμένῃ, μιᾷ καὶ τῇ αὐτῇ ὥρᾳ, ἱερουργιῶν, μὴ γίνεσθαι πολλοὺς Χριστοὺς ἢ πολλὰ σώματα Χριστοῦ, ἀλλ’ ἕνα καὶ τὸν αὐτὸν Χριστὸν παρεῖναι ἀληθῶς καὶ πραγματικῶς ἐν πάσαις ταῖς κατὰ μέρος τῶν πιστῶν ἐκκλησίαις, καὶ ἓν εἶναι αὐτοῦ τὸ σῶμα καὶ τὸ αἷμα ἐν πολλοῖς τόποις καὶ οὐ πολλά. Καὶ τοῦτο οὐχ ὅτι τὸ ἐν οὐρανοῖς τοῦ δεσπότου ἐν τοῖς θυσιαστηρίοις κάτεισι σῶμα, ἀλλ’ ὅτι ὁ τῆς προθέσεως ἐν πάσαις ταῖς κατὰ μέρος ἐκκλησίαις προκείμενος ἄρτος μεταποιούμενος καὶ μετουσιούμενος μετὰ τὸν ἁγιασμὸν γίνεται καὶ ἔστιν ἓν καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ τῷ ἐν οὐρανοῖς. Ἓν γὰρ τὸ σῶμα τοῦ Κυρίου ἐν πολλοῖς τόποις καὶ οὐ πολλά, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο τὸ μυστήριον τοῦτο μάλιστά ἐστι καὶ λέγεται θαυμαστὸν καὶ πίστει μόνῃ καταληπτόν, οὐ σοφίσμασι σοφίας ἀνθρωπίνης, ἧς τὴν ματαίαν καὶ ἀνόητον ἐν τοῖς θείοις περιέργειαν ἀποσείεται ἡ εὐσεβὴς καὶ θεοπαράδοτος ἡμῶν θρησκεία.
Ἔτι αὐτὸ τὸ σῶμα καὶ τὸ αἷμα τοῦ Κυρίου τὸ ἐν τῷ τῆς εὐχαριστίας μυστηρίῳ ὀφείλειν τιμᾶσθαι ὑπερβαλλόντως καὶ προσκυνεῖσθαι λατρευτικῶς· μία γὰρ ἡ προσκύνησις τοῦ μονογενοῦς καὶ τοῦ τιμίου σώματος καὶ αἵματος αὐτοῦ.
Ἔτι εἶναι θυσίαν ἀληθῆ καὶ ἱλαστικήν, προσφερομένην ὑπὲρ πάντων τῶν εὐσεβῶν, ζώντων καὶ τεθνεώτων, καὶ ὑπὲρ ὠφελείας πάντων, ὡς κεῖται ῥητῶς ἐν ταῖς τοῦ μυστηρίου τούτου εὐχαῖς, ὑπὸ τῶν ἀποστόλων τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ παραδοθείσαις, κατὰ τὴν πρὸς αὐτοὺς τοῦ Κυρίου διαταγήν.
Ἔτι καὶ πρὸ τῆς χρήσεως εὐθὺς μετὰ τὸν ἁγιασμὸν καὶ μετὰ τὴν χρῆσιν τὸ φυλαττόμενον ἐν ταῖς ἱεραῖς θήκαις πρὸς μετάληψιν τῶν ἀποδημῆσαι μελλόντων ἀληθὲς εἶναι τοῦ Κυρίου σῶμα καὶ κατὰ μηδὲν διαφέρον ἑαυτοῦ, ὥστε πρὸ τῆς χρήσεως μετὰ τὸν ἁγιασμόν, ἐν τῇ χρήσει, καὶ μετὰ τὴν χρῆσιν εἶναι κατὰ πάντα τὸ ἀληθὲς τοῦ Κυρίου σῶμα.
Ἔτι μὴ γίνεσθαι ὑπό τινος ἄλλου τὸ τῆς ἱερᾶς εὐχαριστίας τοῦτο μυστήριον, εἰ μὴ μόνον ὑπὸ ἱερέως εὐσεβοῦς καὶ ἀπὸ εὐσεβοῦς καὶ νομίμου ἐπισκόπου τὴν ἱερωσύνην λαβόντος, καθ’ ὃν τρόπον ἡ Καθολικὴ Ἐκκλησία διδάσκει.
Ἔτι τῇ μετουσίωσις λέξει οὐ τὸν τρόπον πιστεύομεν δηλοῦσθαι, καθ’ ὃν ὁ ἄρτος καὶ ὁ οἶνος μεταποιοῦνται εἰς τὸ σῶμα καὶ τὸ αἷμα τοῦ Κυρίου —τοῦτο γὰρ ἄληπτον παντὶ καὶ ἀδύνατον, πλὴν αὐτοῦ τοῦ Θεοῦ, καὶ τοῖς συκοφαντοῦσι τὴν Καθολικὴν Ἐκκλησίαν φρονεῖν οὕτως ἀμάθειαν ἅμα καὶ ἀσέβειαν ἐπιφέρει—, ἀλλ’ ὅτι ὁ ἄρτος καὶ ὁ οἶνος μετὰ τὸν ἁγιασμὸν οὐ τυπικῶς, οὐδ’ εἰκονικῶς, οὐδὲ πνευματικῶς, καθ’ ὃν τρόπον πνευματικὰ λέγονται τὰ τῆς ἀρχαίας διαθήκης μυστήρια, τυπικὰ καὶ σκιώδη ὄντα, καὶ μυστήρια λεγόμενα μάλιστα, καθόσον ἐσήμαινον τὰ τῆς νέας διαθήκης μυστήρια, ἀλήθεια ὑπάρχοντα, (ἐπειδὴ ἐκεῖνοι ἐσθίοντες τὸ μάννα καὶ πίνοντες ἐκ τῆς ἀκολουθούσης πέτρας, ἤσθιον καὶ ἔπινον τὸ σῶμα καὶ τὸ αἷμα τοῦ Κυρίου, ἀλλὰ τυπικῶς, ἡμεῖς δὲ ἐσθίομεν καὶ πίνομεν ἀληθῶς, κἀκεῖνοι μὲν τὰ μὴ ὄντα, ἀλλ’ ἐσόμενα, ἡμεῖς δὲ τὰ ὄντα, καὶ οἱ μὲν κατὰ ἀπουσίαν, ἡμεῖς δὲ κατὰ παρουσίαν, καὶ οἱ μὲν τὰ δηλωτικὰ τούτων, ἡμεῖς δὲ τὰ ὑπάρχοντα), οὐδὲ χάριτι ὑπερβαλλούσῃ, ἣν τὰ λοιπὰ πλουτοῦσι μυστήρια, οὐδὲ τῇ κοινωνίᾳ ἢ τῇ παρουσίᾳ τῆς θεότητος μόνης τοῦ μονογενοῦς, καθώς τινες τῶν πατέρων εἰρήκασι περὶ τοῦ θείου βαπτίσματος, οὐδὲ κατὰ τὴν ἀληθῆ καὶ βεβαίαν παρουσίαν τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ἣν δηλονότι ἡ πίστις μόνη προσφέρει, ὡς ἡ Καλουΐνου ἀσέβεια καινοτομεῖ, ἐπειδὴ ἡ τοιαύτη παρουσία οὐκ ἔστιν ἀληθὴς καὶ βεβαία, ἀλλὰ φαντασιώδης καὶ ὅλως διανοίας ἀνάπλασμα, ὡς μὴ οὖσα οὐσιώδης καὶ πραγματική, οὐδὲ κατ’ ἐναρτισμόν, ὥστε τὸ σῶμα τοῦ Κυρίου ὑπάρχον ἄπειρον διὰ τὸ συνηνῶσθαι τυχὸν τῇ θεότητι τοῦ μονογενοῦς εἶναι καὶ τῷ προκειμένῳ τῆς εὐχαριστίας ἄρτῳ ἡνωμένον, καὶ κατὰ μετωνυμίαν εἶναι τὸν ἄρτον σῶμα καὶ τὸν οἶνον αἷμα καὶ μὴ κατὰ μεταβολήν, ὡς ἡ Λουθήρου μανία βούλεται· οὐδὲ συμβεβηκός τι τοῦ ἄρτου καὶ τοῦ οἴνου εἰς συμβεβηκός τι τοῦ σώματος καὶ αἵματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ κατά τινα τροπὴν ἢ ἀλλοίωσιν μεταποιεῖται, ἀλλ’ ἀληθῶς καὶ πραγματικῶς καὶ οὐσιωδῶς γίνεται ὁ μὲν ἄρτος αὐτὸ τὸ ἀληθὲς τοῦ Κυρίου σῶμα, ὁ δὲ οἶνος αὐτὸ τὸ ἀληθὲς τοῦ Κυρίου αἷμα, ὡς εἴρηται ἀνωτέρω.
Αὕτη ἐστὶν ἐν συντόμῳ ἡ τῆς Καθολικῆς Ἐκκλησίας καὶ περὶ τοῦ μυστηρίου τούτου δόξα καὶ ἀληθὴς ὁμολογία καὶ ἀρχαιοτάτη παράδοσις, ὅσον πρὸς τοὺς ἀπαναινομένους τὴν μετουσίωσιν, ἣν οὐ δεῖ κολοβοῦσθαι κατ’ οὐδένα τρόπον ὑπὸ τῶν εὐσεβεῖν βουλομένων καὶ ἀποσειομένων τοὺς νεωτερισμοὺς καὶ τὰς βεβήλους τῶν αἱρετικῶν κενοφωνίας, ἀλλ’ ἀναγκαίως σώαν καὶ ἀδιάσειστον τηρεῖσθαι τὴν νομοθετηθεῖσαν παράδοσιν. Τοὺς γὰρ παραβαίνοντας ἀποποιεῖται καὶ ἀναθεματίζει ἡ Καθολικὴ τοῦ Χριστοῦ Ἐκκλησία
We believe that the souls of those that have fallen asleep are either at rest or in torment, according to what ecah hath wrought; – for when they are separated from their bodies, they depart immediately either to joy, or to sorrow and lamenation; though confessedly neither their enjoyment, nor condemnation are complete. For after the common resurrection, when the soul shall be united with the body, with which it had behaved itself well or ill, each shall receive the completion of either enjoyment or of condemnation forsooth.
And such as though involved in mortal sins have not departed in despair, but have, while still living in the body, repented, though without bringing forth any fruits of repentance – by pouring forth tears, forsooth, by kneeling while watching in prayers, by afflicting themselves, by relieving the poor, and in fine by showing forth by their works their love towards God and their neighbour, and which the Catholic Church hath from the beginning rightly called satisfaction – of these and such like the souls departed into Hades, and there endure the punishment due to the sins they have committed. But they are aware of their future release from thence, and are delivered by the Supreme Goodness, through the prayers of the Priests, and the good works which the relatives of each do for their Departed; especially the unbloody Sacrifice availing in the highest degree; which each offereth particularly for his relatives that have fallen asleep, and which the Catholic and Apostolic Church offereth daily for all alike; it being, of ocurse, understood that we know not the time of their release. For that there is deliverance for such from their direful condition, and that before the common resurrection and judgment we know and believe; but when we know not.
Πιστεύομεν τὰς τῶν κεκοιμημένων ψυχὰς εἶναι ἢ ἐν ἀνέσει ἢ ἐν ὀδύνῃ, καθ’ ὅτι ἕκαστος ἔπραξεν· χωριζομένας γὰρ ἀπὸ τῶν σωμάτων παραυτίκα ἢ πρὸς εὐφροσύνην ἢ πρὸς λύπην καὶ στεναγμὸν ἐκδημεῖν, ὁμολογουμένης μέντοι μήτε τῆς ἀπολαύσεως μήτε τῆς κατακρίσεως τελείας. Μετὰ γὰρ τὴν κοινὴν ἀνάστασιν, ὅτε ἡ ψυχὴ ἑνωθείη τῷ σώματι, μεθ’ οὗ καλῶς ἢ πονηρῶς ἐπολιτεύσατο, ἀπολήψεται ἕκαστος τὸ τέλειον ἢ τῆς ἀπολαύσεως ἢ τῆς κατακρίσεως δηλονότι.
Ἐπειδὴ δὲ ἐν τῷ παρόντι κεφαλαίῳ ἐμνήσθη ὁ συγγραφεὺς μνημοσύνων περὶ τῶν κεκοιμημένων καὶ καθαρτηρίου πυρός, φαμὲν ὅτι ἡ ἅγια καθολικὴ καὶ ἀποστολικὴ τοῦ Χριστοῦ Ἐκκλησία δοξάζει καὶ μετὰ θάνατον κάθαρσιν τὴν διὰ τῆς φρικτῆς θυσίας καὶ ἑτέρων ἱερῶν εὐχῶν, δεήσεων, ἐλεημοσυνῶν τε καὶ ἄλλων θεοφιλῶν ἔργων, ὑπὸ τῶν πιστῶν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἀποιχομένοις τελουμένων. Καθαρτικαῖς δὲ τιμωρίαις καὶ διὰ καθαρτηρίου πυρὸς ἀποκαθαίρεσθαι, καὶ ὅλως πῦρ τιμωρητικὸν ἢ καθαρτικόν, ἀσωμάτου ψυχῆς δραττόμενον, πρὸ τῆς δευτέρας τοῦ Χριστοῦ παρουσίας κατὰ τὴν ἐν τῇ μελλούσῃ κρίσει καὶ ἀποφάσει τῶν βεβιωμένων ἡμῖν ἀνταπόδοσιν, οὔτε φρονεῖν οὔτε λέγειν ἀνεχόμεθα.
Ὅθεν καὶ τέσσαρσι διαφοραῖς τῶν ὑποτιθεμένων τὸ τοιαῦτον καθαρτήριον πῦρ διαφέρομεν. Ἡ πρώτη ἐστίν, ὅτι πρεσβεύομεν μὴ εἶναι τὸν τοιοῦτον τόπον τῆς λυτρώσεως ἔξωθεν ἢ ἐγγὺς τοῦ ᾅδου, ἀλλ’ ἔνδον τοῦ ᾅδου. Οὐ γὰρ δίδοται τρίτος τόπος οὔτε ὑπὸ τῆς Γραφῆς οὔτε ὑπὸ τῆς κοινῆς δόξης τῆς Καθολικῆς Ἐκκλησίας, καὶ ὅσα ῥητὰ προσφέρουσιν οἱ τοῦ καθαρτηρίου γεννήτορες παρεξηγοῦνται, διαστρέφονται καὶ βίᾳ ἕλκονται εἰς ἀλλότριον καὶ ἀπᾷδον σημαινόμενον. Ὅτι δὲ ἐν ᾅδου γίνεται ἡ λύτρωσις (καθότι οὐ γέγονεν ἕως ἄρτι ἡ τελεία καὶ καθόλου ἀπόφασις τοῦ Σωτῆρος κατὰ τῶν ἀποβεβλημένων, ὅταν γὰρ αὕτη γένηται, ἐν τῇ δευτέρᾳ παρουσίᾳ δηλονότι, οὐκ ἔτι ἀπολείπεται ἧστινοσοῦν ἀνέσεως ἢ ἀπολυτρώσεως ἐλπὶς ἐκ τοῦ ᾅδου), δῆλον ἀπό τε τῆς Γραφῆς καὶ τῶν Πατέρων. Οὐκ ἄδηλον, ὅτι ὁ ᾅδης ἐστὶν ὁ τόπος τοῦ δεσμοῦ καὶ τῆς λυτρώσεως, καὶ οὐ δίδοται τρίτος τόπος.
Ἡ δὲ δεύτερα ἐστὶ μὴ λέγεσθαι πῦρ καθαρτήριον πλὴν τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, τὴν ἐν τῷ ᾅδῃ δὲ τῶν τοιούτων λύπην καὶ στεναγμὸν λέγεσθαι ἀκύρως καθάρσιον, καὶ μὴ ἁπλῶς καὶ ἀπολύτως, ἀλλὰ συνεκδοχικῶς, ἧ διὰ τῆς ἐν τῷ ᾅδῃ ὡς ἐν δεσμωτηρίῳ κατοχῆς συγχωρεῖ τοῖς αἰχμαλώτοις ὁ Θεός. Ὁ δὲ Θεός ἐστι τὸ κυρίως καὶ πρώτως καὶ καθαυτὸ καθαρτήριον πῦρ, τὸ πάντῃ καὶ πάντως τελείαν ποιούμενον εἴτε λύτρωσιν εἴτε καὶ ἀναψυχὴν καὶ κάθαρσιν κατὰ τὴν Ἐκκλησίαν, εἴτε ἄνεσιν κατὰ τὸν μέγαν Βασίλειον, εἴτε καταλλαγὴν κατὰ τὸν Χρυσόστομον.
Τρίτη ἐστὶ μὴ καλῶς λέγεσθαι διὰ τὰ ἀθανάσιμα τῶν πλημμελημάτων τιμωρεῖσθαί τινας μετὰ θάνατον. Ταύτῃ γὰρ ἂν πάντες τῇ τοιαύτῃ τιμωρίᾳ ὑποπέσειεν, καὶ οὐδεὶς μετὰ θάνατον εἰς οὐρανοὺς ἀναβαίνοι. Οὐδεὶς γὰρ ἀναμάρτητος, κατά γε τὸν ἀδελφόθεον καὶ τὸν ἐπιστήθιον ἐν ταῖς ἐπιστολαῖς καὶ τὴν ἐν Καρθαγένῃ σύνοδον· καὶ ἀλλαχοῦ ἡ Γραφὴ λέγει, ὅτι ἑπτάκις ὁ δίκαιος τῆς ἡμέρας ἁμαρτήσεται. Τὸ τοιοῦτον δὲ ἁμάρτημα οὔτε τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐξίστησι τὸν ἄνθρωπον, οὔτε τῇ ἀγάπῃ ἀντιφέρεται, οὔτε ἔνοχον ποιεῖ τὸν τοῦτο ἐργαζόμενον παντοία ἁμαρτία· εἶτα ἐξ ἀσθενείας τῆς ἀνθρωπίνης προερχόμενον οὐκ ἀπὸ μιαρᾶς προαιρέσεως τῇ καθημερινῇ τῶν πιστῶν εὐχῇ ἀφανιζόμενον εἰς οὐδὲν λογίζεται. Πρὸς τούτοις ῥητέον, ὅτι «προσήκει τῇ ἀγαθότητι τοῦ Θεοῦ τὸ ὀλίγον ἀγαθὸν μὴ παριδεῖν ἢ τὴν σμικρὰν ἁμαρτίαν δίκης ἀξιοῦν· ἀλλὰ τὸ ὀλίγον ἀγαθὸν ἐν τοῖς τὰ μεγάλα ἡμαρτηκόσιν οὐδὲ μιᾶς ἀμοιβῆς ἐπιτυγχάνει, διὰ τὴν τῆς πονηρίας πλεονεξίαν· οὐδ’ ἄρα τὸ ὀλίγον κακὸν ἐν τοῖς τὰ μεγάλα κατωρθωκόσι προσήκει δίκης τυχεῖν, διὰ τὸ τὰ βελτίω νικᾶν· εἰ γὰρ τὸ μᾶλλον δοκοῦν οὐκ ἔστι, σχολὴ τό γε ἧττον ἂν εἴη. Ἔτι, ὡς ἔχει τὸ ὀλίγον ἀγαθὸν ἐν τοῖς τἆλλα φαύλοις, οὕτω τὸ ὀλίγον κακὸν ἐν τοῖς τἆλλα ἀγαθοῖς. Ἀλλὰ τὸ ὀλίγον ἀγαθὸν ἐν ἐκείνοις οὐ δύναται ἀγαθῶν ἀνταπόδοσιν ποιεῖν, ἀλλὰ μόνον διαφορὰν κολάσεως. καὶ τὸ ὀλίγον ἄρα κακὸν οὐ ποιήσει κόλασιν, ἀλλὰ μόνον διαφορὰν ἀπολαύσεως». Οὐκ ἄρα διὰ τὰ ἀθανάσιμα ἁμαρτήματα, τὰ καὶ σμικρὰ λεγόμενα, τοὺς τούτων ἐνόχους καὶ κοιμηθέντας διὰ πυρὸς καθαίρεσθαι ἢ ἄλλως πως τιμωρεῖσθαι νομιστέον. Μήτε μὴν τιμωρεῖσθαι τοὺς μετανοήσαντας μὲν γνησίως καὶ τελείως προαρπασθέντας δὲ ὑπὸ τοῦ θανάτου καὶ μὴ δυνηθέντας ποιῆσαι καρποὺς ἀξίους τῆς μετανοίας, οὓς ποιεῖν ἐν εὐαγγελίοις οἱ ζῶντες ἡμεῖς διακελευόμεθα, καὶ ὡς δι’ ἀξιοπίστων τοιούτων μαρτύρων τὸ μῖσος τῆς ἀπεγνωσμένης καὶ κατεγνωσμένης ἁμαρτίας ἐνδείκνυσθαι (ἔστι δὲ γνησία καὶ τελεία μετάνοια ἡ ἀποστροφὴ τῆς ψυχῆς πρὸς δικαιοσύνην ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας αὐτοπροαίρετος, τ. ἔ. ἑκούσιος σὺν θερμοτάτῃ καρδίας συντριβῇ καὶ θλίψει ἐφ’ οἷς ἐπλημμέλησε μετὰ ἐλπίδος τῶν οἰκτιρμῶν τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ Πατρὸς διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ). Καί οἱ τοιοῦτοι γὰρ ἀπαίρουσιν ἑνούμενοι τῷ Χριστῷ, ὑφ’ οὗ δικαιοῦνται, ἁγιάζονται, δοξάζονται καὶ ἐν μακαρίοις συναγάλλονται. Τὸ δὲ λέγειν ἐπὶ τῶν τοιούτων, ὅτι ἀφείθη μὲν ἡ ἁμαρτία, μεμένηκε δὲ ἡ ποινή, παιζόντων ἐστὶ καὶ οὐκ εὖ φρονούντων, οὐ θεολογούντων καὶ σωφρονούντων. Μὴ τιμωρεῖσθαι λοιπὸν φαμὲν τοὺς καλῶς μετανοήσαντας ἐν τῷ ᾅδῃ, ἐπειδή οἱ τοιοῦτοι αὐλίζονται ἐν τῇ ἐπουρανίῳ τῶν πρωτοτόκων Ἐκκλησίᾳ, ἀλλὰ περὶ μεγάλων ἁμαρτημάτων γίνεσθαι εἰς ᾅδου τήν τε τιμωρίαν καὶ τὴν λύτρωσιν. Εἰσὶ δὲ τῶν τοιούτων αἱ τιμωρίαι, ὡς συνάγεται ἀπὸ τῶν ἁγίων Πατέρων καὶ τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ ὑπὲρ τῶν κεκοιμημένων εὐχῶν, λύπη ἢ συνειδότος αἰσχύνη καὶ βάσανοι ἢ μετάμελος καὶ συγκλεισμὸς καὶ σκότος ἢ φόβος καὶ ἀδηλία τοῦ μέλλοντος (οὐκ οἴδασι καὶ γὰρ τὸν καιρὸν τῆς ἀπαλλαγῆς) ἢ μόνη ἀναβολὴ τῆς θείας θεωρίας καὶ κατὰ τὴν ἀναλογίαν τῶν ἁμαρτημάτων ἢ πάντα τὰ τοιαῦτα ἢ τινὰ τούτων. Πῦρ δὲ οὐκ ἔστι τοῖς κεκοιμημένοις καὶ τιμωρουμένοις πρὸ τῆς κοινῆς κρίσεως. Τότε γὰρ τὸ αἰώνιον πῦρ καταφάγεται τοὺς κατὰ πάντα τρόπον ἀναξίους κριθέντας τοῦ τοιούτου ἐλέους.
Ἡ τελευταία δὲ διαφορά ἐστι περὶ τοῦ διορισμοῦ τῆς λυτρώσεως. Ὅτι μὲν γὰρ ἐν καιρῷ τῆς κρίσεως πολλοὺς ἐλεήσει ὁ πολυέλεος Θεός, μαρτυρεῖ αὐτὴ ἡ αὐτοαλήθεια, εἰποῦσα «ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται Σοδόμοις καὶ Γομόρροις ἐν τῇ κρίσει». Ὅτι δὲ καὶ πρὸ τῆς κοινῆς κρίσεως πολλοὺς λυτροῦται ἐκ τῶν δεσμῶν, καὶ τοῦτο ὁμολογοῦμεν κατὰ τὴν κοινὴν δόξαν τῆς Καθολικῆς Ἐκκλησίας. Τὸ πότε ὅμως τῆς λυτρώσεως ταύτης πάντῃ καὶ πάντως ἀγνοοῦμεν. Ὅθεν καὶ τό, διὰ τῶν τάδε ἢ τόσων λειτουργιῶν ἢ εὐχῶν ἢ ἐλεημοσυνῶν ἢ συγχωρητικῶν τοῦ δεινὸς ἀρχιερέως ἢ τοῦ δεινὸς πατριάρχου ἀπολύεσθαι τὴν τάδε ψυχὴν τῶν κατεχόντων αὐτὴν ἀνιαρῶν, ἀποβάλλομεν. Ὅτι μὲν γὰρ τὰ τοιαῦτα συμβάλλουσι πρὸς λύτρωσιν τῶν ἐν τῷ ᾅδῃ τοιούτων, ὑπὸ τῶν Ὀρθοδόξων ἐνεργούμενα, ὁμολογοῦμεν· ὅτι δὲ δύναμιν ἔχουσι ῥύσασθαι ἐν τῷδε τῷ ὁποιῳδήποτε χρόνῳ, γενναίως ἀποστρεφόμεθα. Ἐπὶ γὰρ τῷ Θεῷ μόνῳ, τῷ ἔχοντι ἁπλῶς τὰς κλεῖς τοῦ ᾅδου καὶ τοῦ θανάτου, κατὰ τὸ τῆς Ἀποκαλύψεως, καὶ εἰδότι τὴν ποσότητα καὶ ποιότητα τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων ἁμαρτιῶν, καὶ τὰ κινήματα καὶ ἐγκρύφια τῆς καρδίας, δι’ ὧν προέρχεται ἡ ἁμαρτία, κεῖται ἡ λύτρωσις καὶ ὁ διορισμὸς τῆς λυτρώσεως, τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ δὲ μόνον ἐφεῖται τὸ παρακαλεῖν ὑπὲρ τῶν κεκοιμημένων.
Q. 1. Ought the Divine Scriptures to be read in the vulgar tongue by all Christians?
No. For that all Scripture is divinely-inspired and profitable (cf. 2 Tim. 3.16) we know, and is of such necessity, that without the same it is impossible to be Orthodox at all. Nevertheless, they should not be read by all, but only by those who with fitting research have inquired into the deep things of the Spirit, and who know in what manner the Divine Scriptures ought to be searched, and taught, and in fine read. But to such as are not so exercised, or who cannot distinguish, or who understand only literally, or in any other way contrary to Orthodoxy what is contained in the Scirptures, the Catholic Church, as knowing by experience the mischief arising therefrom, forbiddeth the reading of the same. So that it is permitted to every Orthodox to hear indeed the Scriptures, that he may believe with the heart unto righteousness, and confess with the mouth unto salvation (Rom. 10.10); but to read some parts of the Scriptures, and especially of the Old [Testament], is forbidden for the aforesaid reasons and others of the like sort. For it is the same things thus to prohibit persons not exercised thereto reading all the Sacred Scriptures, as to require infants to abstain from strong meats.
Εἰ δεῖ τὴν θείαν Γραφὴν κοινῶς παρὰ πάντων τῶν χριστιανῶν ἀναγινώσκεσθαι;
Οὔ. Τὴν πᾶσαν γὰρ Γραφὴν θεόπνευστον καὶ ὠφέλιμον οἴδαμεν, καὶ οὕτω τὸ ἀναγκαῖον ἔχουσαν μεθ’ ἑαυτῆς, ὥστε χωρὶς αὐτῆς ἀδύνατον ὁπωσοῦν εὐσεβεῖν. Οὐ μὴν καὶ ὑπὸ πάντων ἀναγινώσκεσθαι ταύτην, ἀλλ’ ὑπὸ μόνον τῶν μετὰ τῆς πρεπούσης ἐρεύνης ἐπὶ τοῖς βάθεσιν ἐγκυπτόντων τοῦ πνεύματος, καὶ εἰδότων οἷς τρόποις ἡ θεία Γραφὴ ἐρευνᾶται καὶ διδάσκεται καὶ ὅλως ἀναγινώσκεται. Τοῖς δὲ μὴ γεγυμνασμένοις καὶ ἀδιαφόρως ἢ μόνον κατὰ τὸ γράμμα ἢ καὶ κατ’ ἄλλον τινὰ τρόπον ἀλλότριον τῆς εὐσεβείας τὰ τῆς Γραφῆς ἐκλαμβάνουσιν ἡ Καθολικὴ Ἐκκλησία, διὰ τῆς πείρας τὴν βλάβην ἐγνωκυῖα, οὐ θεμιτὴν τὴν ἀνάγνωσιν εἶναι ἐντέλλεται· ὥστε παντὶ εὐσεβεῖ ἐπιτετράφθαι μὲν ἀκούειν τὰ τῆς Γραφῆς, ἵνα πιστεύῃ μὲν τῇ καρδίᾳ εἰς δικαιοσύνην, ὁμολογῇ δὲ τῷ στόματι εἰς σωτηρίαν, ἀναγινώσκειν δὲ ἔνια τῆς Γραφῆς μέρη, καὶ μάλιστα τῆς Παλαιᾶς, ἀπηγόρευται, τῶν εἰρήμενων αἰτίων καὶ τῶν ὁμοίων τούτοις ἕνεκα. Καὶ ἔστιν ἴσον παραγγέλλειν τοῖς ἀγυμνάστοις μὴ ἀναγινώσκειν ὡσαύτως τὴν πᾶσαν ἱερὰν Γραφήν, καὶ τοῖς βρέφεσιν ἐντέλλεσθαι μὴ ἅπτεσθαι στερεᾶς τροφῆς.
Q. 2. Are the Scriptures plain to all Christians that read them?
If the Divine Scriptures were plain to all Christians that read them, the Lord would not have commanded such as desired to obtain salvation to search the same (John 5.39); and Paul would have said without reason that God had placed the gift of teaching in the Church (1 Cor. 13.28); and Peter would not have said of the Epistles of Paul that they contained some things hard to understand (2 Pet. 3.16). It is evident, therefore, that the Scriptures are very profound, and their sense lofty; and that they need learned and divine men to search out their true meaning, and a sense that is right, and agreeable to all Scripture, and to its author the Holy Spirit.
So that as to those that are regenerated [in Baptism], although they must know the faith concerning the Trinity, the incarnation of the Son of God, his passion, resurrection, and ascension into the heavens, what concerneth regenreation and judgment – for which many have not hesitated to die – it is not necessary, but rather impossible, that all should know what the Holy Spirit manifesteth to those alone who are exercised in wisdom and holiness.
Εἰ σαφής ἐστιν ἡ Γραφὴ πᾶσι τοῖς ἀναγινώσκουσιν αὐτὴν χριστιανοῖς;
Εἰ σαφὴς ἦν ἡ θεία Γραφὴ πᾶσι τοῖς ἀναγινώσκουσι χριστιανοῖς, οὐκ ἂν ὁ Κύριος ἐρευνᾶν ταύτην τοῖς βουλομένοις σωτηρίας τυχεῖν ἐπέτρεπε, καὶ τὸ χάρισμα τῆς διδασκαλίας ματαίως τῷ Παύλῳ ἐλέγετο τεθῆναι ὑπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ καὶ ὁ Πέτρος οὐκ ἂν περὶ τῶν τοῦ Παύλου ἐπιστολῶν ἔχειν τινὰ δυσνόητα ἔλεγεν. Δῆλον οὖν, ὡς πολὺ τὸ βάθος ἔχειν τὴν Γραφὴν καὶ τὸ μέγεθος τῶν ἐννοιῶν, καὶ δεῖσθαι ἐπιστημόνων καὶ θείων ἀνδρῶν πρὸς ἔρευναν καὶ ἀληθῆ κατάληψιν καὶ γνῶσιν ὀρθὴν καὶ συνῳδὸν τῇ πάσῃ Γραφῇ καὶ τῷ δημιουργῷ ταύτης ἁγίῳ Πνεύματι. Ὥστε τοῖς ἀναγεννηθεῖσιν, εἰ καὶ γνώριμος ἁπλῶς ἡ περὶ Τριάδος πίστις καὶ ἡ τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐνανθρώπησις, τὰ πάθη, ἡ ἀνάστασις, ἡ εἰς οὐρανοὺς ἄνοδος, ὁ περὶ τῆς παλιγγενεσίας καὶ κρίσεως λόγος, ὧν ἕνεκα πολλοὶ καὶ θάνατον ὑπομεῖναι οὐκ ὤκνησαν, οὐκ ἀναγκαῖον δέ, μᾶλλον δὲ ἀδύνατον πᾶσιν εἰδέναι καὶ ἃ τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον διὰ τῆς Γραφῆς μόνοις τοῖς γεγυμνασμένοις ἐπὶ σοφίᾳ καὶ ἁγιότητι φανεροῖ.
Q. 3. What books do you call Sacred Scripture?
Following the rule of the Catholic Church, we call Sacred Scripture all those which Cyril [Lucar] collected from the Synod of Laodicea, and enumerated, adding thereto those which he foolishly, and ignorantly, or rather maliciously called Apocrypha; to wit, The Wisdom of Solomon, Judith, Tobit, The History of the Dragon, The History of Susanna, The Maccabees, and The Wisdom of Sirach. For we judge these also to be with the other genuine Books of Divine Scripture genuine parts of Scripture. For ancient custom, or rather the Catholic Church, which hath delivered to us as genuine the Sacred Gospels and the other Books of Scripture, hath undoubtedly delivered these also as parts of Scripture, and the denial of these is the rejection of those. And if, perhaps, it seemeth that not always have all been by all reckoned with the others, yet nevertheless these also have beencounted and reckoned with the rest of Scripture, as well by Synods, as by how many of the most ancient and eminent theologians of the Catholic Church; all of which we also judge to be Canonical Books, and confess them to be Sacred Scriptures.
Ἱερὰν Γραφὴν ποία βιβλία καλεῖς;
Στοιχοῦντες τῷ κανόνι τῆς Καθολικῆς Ἐκκλησίας ἱερὰν Γραφὴν καλοῦμεν ἐκεῖνα πάντα, ἅπερ ὁ Κύριλλος ἀπὸ τῆς ἐν Λαοδικείᾳ συνόδου ἐρανισάμενος ἀριθμεῖ, καὶ πρὸς τούτοις ἅπερ ἀσυνέτως καὶ ἀμαθῶς, εἴτουν ἐθελοκακούργως, ἀπόκρυφα οὕτως ἁπλῶς καὶ ἀδιορίστως κατωνόμασεν, ἤτοι τὸν Τωβίαν, τὴν Ἰουδήθ, τῆς Ἐσθὴρ πρὸς τοῖς δέκα ἕτερα κεφάλαια ἕξ, τοῦ Ἔσδρα ἕτερον βιβλίον ἕν, τὸν Βαρούχ, τὴν ᾠδὴν τῶν τριῶν παίδων περιεχομένην εἰς τὸ τρίτον κεφάλαιον τοῦ Δανιήλ, τὴν ἱστορίαν τῆς Σωσάννης, τὴν ἱστορίαν τοῦ δράκοντος, ἤτοι τοῦ Βήλ, τὴν Σοφίαν τοῦ Σολομῶντος, τὴν Σοφίαν τοῦ Σειράχ, καὶ τὰ τρία βιβλία τῶν Μακκαβαίων. Ἡμεῖς γὰρ μετὰ τῶν ἀλλῶν τῆς θείας Γραφῆς γνησίων βιβλίων καὶ ταῦτα γνήσια τῆς Γραφῆς μέρη κρίνομεν· ἡ γὰρ παραδόσασα Καθολικὴ Ἐκκλησία τά τε θεῖα καὶ ἱερὰ Εὐαγγέλια καὶ τἆλλα τῆς Γραφῆς μέρη ἀληθῆ εἶναι, καὶ ταῦτα γνήσια τῆς Γραφῆς μέρη εἶναι ἀναμφιβόλως παρέδωκε, καὶ τούτων ἡ ἄρνησις ἐκείνων ἐστὶν ἀθέτησις. Εἰ δέ που δοκεῖ μὴ ἀεὶ πάντα ὑπὸ πάντων συγκαταριθμεῖσθαι, οὐδὲν ἧττον ὅμως καὶ ταῦτα παρά τε συνόδων καὶ πολλῶν ὅσων τῆς Καθολικῆς Ἐκκλησίας παλαιοτάτων τε καὶ ἐγκρίτων θεολόγων ἀριθμεῖται καὶ συγκαταριθμεῖται τῇ πάσῃ Γραφῇ, ἃ πάντα καὶ ἡμεῖς κανονικὰ βιβλία κρίνομεν, καὶ ταῦτα τὴν ἱερὰν Γραφὴν εἶναι ὁμολογοῦμεν.
Q. 4. How ought we to think of the Holy Icons, and of the adoration of the Saints?
The saints being, and acknowledged by the Catholic Church to be, intercessors, as hath been said in the Eighth Decree [above], it is time to say that we honour them as friends of God, and as praying for us to the God of all. And the honour we pay them is twofold; – according to one manner which we call hyperdoulia, we honour the Mother of God the Word. For though indeed the Theotokos be servant of the only God, yet is she also his Mother, as having borne in the flesh one of the Trinity; wherefore also is she hymned, as being beyond compare, above as well all Angels as Siants; wherefore, also, we pay her the adoration of hyperdoulia. But according to the other manner, which we call doulia, we adore, or rather honour, the holy Angels, Apostles, Prophets, Martyrs, and, in fine, all the Saints. Moreover, we adore and honour the wood of the precious and life-giving Cross, whereon our Saviour underwent this world-saving passion, and the sign of the life-giving Cross, the Manger at Bethlehem, through which we have been delivered from irrationality [in allusion to the manbger out of which the irrational animals eat their food], the place of the Skull [Calvary], the life-giving Sepulchre, and th eother holy objects of adoration; as well the holy Gospels, as the sacred vessels, wherewith the unbloody Sacrifice is performed. And by annual commemorations, and popular festivals, and sacred edifices and offerings; we do respect and honour the saints. And then we adore, and honour, and kiss the icons of our Lord Jesus Christ, and of the most holy Theotokos, and of all the saints, also of the holy Angels, as they appeared to some of the forefathers and prophets. We also represent the All-Holy Spirit, as he appeared, in the form of a dove.
And if some say we commit idolatry in adoring the Saints, and the Icons of the Saints, and the other things, we regard it as foolish and frivolous. For we worship with latria the only God in Trinity, and none other; but the Saints we honour upon two accounts: firstly, for their relation to God, since we honour them for his sake; and for themselves, because they are living images of God. But that which is for themselves hath been defined as doulia. But the holy Icons we adore relatively since the honour paid to them is referred to their prototypes. For he that adoreth the Icon doth, through the Icon, adore the protoype; and the honour paid to the Icon is not at all divided, or at all separated from that of him that is portrayed, and is done unto the same, like that done unto a royal embassy.
And what they adduse from Scripture in support of their novelties, doth not help them as they would, but rather appeareth agreeable to us. For we, when reading the Divine Scripture, examine the occasion and person, the example and cause. Wherefore, when we contemplate God himself saying at one time, “Thou shalt not make to thyself any idol, or likeness; neither shalt thou adore them, nor serve them” (Exod. 20.4–5; Deut. 5.8–9); and at another, commanding that Chrubim should be made (Exod. 25.18); and further, that oxen and lions (1 Kings 7.29) were placed in the Temple, we do not rashly consider the import of these things. For faith is not in assurance; but, as hath been said, considering the occasion and other circumstances, we arrive at the right interpretation of the same; and we conclude that, “Thou shalt not make to thyself any idol, or likeness”, is the same as saying, “Thou shalt not adore strange gods” (Exod. 20.4), or rather, “Thou shalt not commit idolatry”.For so both the custom obtaining in the Church from Apostolic times of adoring the holy Icons relatively is maintained, and the worship of latria reserved for God alone; and God doth not appear to speak contrarily to himself. For if the Scripture saith [absolutely], “Thou shalt not make”, “Thou shalt not adore”, we fail to see how God afterwards permitted likenesses to be made, even though not for adoration. Wherefore, since the commandment concerneth idolatry only, we find serpents, and lions, and oxen, and Cherubim made, and figures and likenesses; among which Angels appear, as having been adored.
And as to the Saints whom they bring forward as saying, that it is not lawful to adore Icons; we conclude that they rather help us; since they in their sharp disputations inveighed, as well against those that adore the holy Icons with latria, as against those that bring the icons of their deceased relatives into the Church, and subjected to anathema those that so do; but not against the right adoration, either of the Saints, or of the holy Icons, or of the precious Cross, or of the other things of which mention hath been made; especially since the holy Icons have been in the Church, and have been adored by the Faithful, even from the times of the Apostles, as is recorded and proclaimed by very many; with whom and after whom the Seventh Holy Ecumenical Synod putteth to shame all heretical impudence.
Since it giveth us most plainly to understand that it behoveth to adore the Holy Icons, and what have been mentioned above. And it anathematises, and subjects to excommunication, as well those that adore the Icons with latria as those that say that the Orthodox commit idolatry in adoring the Icons. We also, therefore, do anathematise with them such as adore either Saint, or Angel, or Icon, or Cross, or Relic of Saints, or sacred Vessel, or Gospel, or aught else that is in heaven above, or aught on the earth, or in the sea, with latria; and we ascribe adoration with latria to the only God in Trinity. And we anathematise those that say that the adoration of Icons is the latria of Icons, and who adore them not, and honour not the Cross, and the Saints, as the Church hath delivered.
Now we adore the Saints and the Holy Icons, in the manner declared; and portray them in adornment of our temples, and that they may be the books of the unlearned, and for them to imitate the virtues of the Saints; and for them to remember, and have an increase of love, and be vigilant in ever calling upon the Lord, as Sovereign and Father, but upon the Saints, as his servants, and our helpers and mediators.
And so much as to the Chatpers and Questions of Cyril.
Πρὸς τούτοις προσκυνοῦμεν, ἤτοι τιμῶμεν, (τὸ γὰρ τὰς εἰκόνας προσκυνεῖν τιμή ἐστιν, οὐ λατρεία, κἂν καὶ σοφίζεται τὸ τῶν αἱρετικῶν σμῆνος λατρείαν τὴν τιμὴν λέγον) τὸ ξύλον τοῦ τιμίου σταυροῦ, ἐν ᾧ ὁ Σωτὴρ ἡμῶν τὸ κοσμοσωτήριον εἰργάσατο πάθος, καὶ τὸν τύπον τοῦ ζωοποιοῦ σταυροῦ, τὴν ἐν Βηθλεὲμ μακαριωτάτην φάτνην, δι’ ἧς τῆς ἀλογίας ἐρρύσθημεν, τὸν τόπον τοῦ κρανίου, τὸν ζωηφόρον τάφον καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ ἅγια προσκυνήματα, ὡς ἡ Ἐκκλησία παρέδωκε καὶ ὁ θεῖος Δαμασκηνὸς διατρανοῖ. Τέως τιμῶμεν τά τε ἱερὰ εὐαγγέλια, καὶ τὰ ἱερὰ σκεύη, δι’ ὧν ἡ ἀναίμακτος ἐπιτελεῖται θυσία· μνήμαις τε ἐτησίαις καὶ δημοσίαις ἑορταῖς καὶ θείοις ἱδρύμασι καὶ ἀναθήμασι τοὺς ἁγίους γεραίρομεν καὶ τιμῶμεν.
Ἔπειτα δὲ καὶ τὴν εἰκόνα τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ τῆς ὑπεραγίας Θεοτόκου καὶ πάντων τῶν ἁγίων προσκυνοῦμεν καὶ τιμῶμεν καὶ ἀσπαζόμεθα, ναὶ μὴν καὶ τῶν ἁγίων ἀγγέλων, ὡς ὤφθησαν ἐνίοις τῶν τε προπατόρων καὶ προφητῶν. Ἱστοροῦμεν δὲ καὶ τὸ πανάγιον Πνεῦμα, ὡς ὤφθη ἐν εἴδει περιστερᾶς.
Εἰ δέ τινες εἰδωλολατρεῖν ἡμᾶς, ἁγίους καὶ εἰκόνας ἁγίων καὶ τὰ λοιπά, ἅπερ εἴρηται ἀνωτέρω, τιμῶντας λέγουσι, μάταιον ἡγούμεθα καὶ ἀδρανές· ἡμεῖς γὰρ μόνῳ τῷ ἐν τριάδι Θεῷ λατρεύομεν καὶ οὐδενὶ ἑτέρῳ. Τοὺς δὲ ἁγίους τιμῶμεν διττῶς πρῶτον μὲν κατὰ τὴν πρὸς Θεὸν ἀναφοράν, ἐπειδὴ ἐκείνου ἕνεκα τιμῶμεν αὐτούς, καὶ καθ’ ἑαυτούς, ὅτι ζῶσαί εἰσιν εἰκόνες τοῦ Θεοῦ· τὸ δὲ καθ’ ἑαυτοὺς διώρισται ὅτι δουλικόν· τὰς δὲ ἁγίας εἰκόνας σχετικῶς, ὡς τῆς πρὸς ἐκείνας τιμῆς ἐπὶ τὰ πρωτότυπα ἀναφερομένης. Ὁ γὰρ τὴν εἰκόνα τιμῶν διὰ τῆς εἰκόνος τὸ πρωτότυπον προσκυνεῖ, καὶ ἡ δόξα οὐ μερίζεται, οὐδ’ ὅλως σχίζεται, τῆς τε εἰκόνος καὶ τοῦ εἰκονιζομένου, καὶ ἐν ταὐτῷ γίνεται, ὡς ἡ εἰς τὸν βασιλικὸν πρέσβυν γινομένη.
Ἃ δὲ πρὸς σύστασιν τῆς καινοτομίας αὐτῶν παρὰ τῆς Γραφῆς λαμβάνουσιν οἱ εἰκονομάχοι, οὐχ οὕτως αὐτοῖς βοηθεῖ, ὡς οἴονται, ἀλλὰ μάλιστα ἡμῖν συνῳδὰ φαίνεται. Ἡμεῖς γὰρ τὴν θείαν Γραφὴν ἀναγινώσκοντες ἐξετάζομεν καιρὸν καὶ πρόσωπον, παράδειγμα καὶ αἰτίαν. Ὅθεν καὶ τὸν αὐτὸν Θεόν πότε μὲν λέγοντα: οὐ ποιήσεις σεαυτῷ εἴδωλον, οὔτε ὁμοίωμα, οὐδὲ προσκυνήσεις, οὐδὲ λατρεύσεις αὐτοῖς, ποτὲ δὲ προστάττοντα γενέσθαι χερουβίμ, καὶ ἔτι βόας καὶ λέοντας γινόμενα ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ θεωροῦντες, οὐ πεισματικῶς τούτων τὴν ἔννοιαν θεωροῦμεν, -ἐν γὰρ τῇ πεισμονῇ οὐκ ἔστι πίστις-, ἀλλ’, ὡς εἴρηται, καιρὸν καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ θεωροῦντες, τῆς ὀρθῆς περὶ τούτων δόξης ἐπιτυγχάνομεν, καὶ τὸ οὐ ποιήσεις σεαυτῷ εἴδωλον ἢ ὁμοίωμα, ταὐτὸν ἡγούμεθα τῷ, οὐ προσκυνήσεις θεοὺς ἀλλοτρίους, εἴτουν μὴ εἰδωλολατρήσῃς. Οὕτω γὰρ καὶ ἡ ἀπὸ τοῦ καιροῦ τῶν Ἀποστόλων ἐπικρατήσασα συνήθεια τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ τοῦ προσκυνεῖσθαι σχετικῶς τὰς ἁγίας εἰκόνας καὶ ἡ μόνῳ τῷ Θεῷ λατρεία διασωθείη, καὶ ὁ Θεὸς οὐκ ἐναντίως λέγων ἑαυτῷ φανείη. Εἰ γὰρ ἡ Γραφή φησιν, οὐ ποιήσεις, οὐδὲ προσκυνήσεις, τίνα τρόπον ὕστερον ὁ Θεὸς τὸ μὲν ποιῆσαι ὁμοιώματα συγκεχώρηκε, τὸ δὲ προσκυνῆσαι οὔ, οὐκ ἔχομεν συνορᾶν. Ὅθεν περὶ μόνης τῆς εἰδωλολατρείας οὔσης τῆς ἐντολῆς, εὑρίσκομεν καὶ ὄφεις καὶ λέοντας καὶ βόας καὶ χερουβὶμ γεγονότα καὶ τιμώμενα, καὶ εἴδη, εἴτουν ὁμοιώματα, ἐν οἷς οἱ ἄγγελοι ἐφαίνοντο, προσκυνηθέντα.
Οὓς δὲ προσφέρουσι τῶν ἁγίων λέγοντας μὴ ἐξὸν προσκυνεῖν τὰς εἰκόνας, ἡμῖν μᾶλλον βοηθεῖν ἐκείνους ἡγούμεθα, ἐπεὶ ἐκεῖνοι ἀγωνιστικῶς διαλεγόμενοι καὶ κατὰ τῶν λατρευτικῶς προσκυνούντων τὰς ἁγίας εἰκόνας καὶ κατὰ τῶν φερόντων εἰς τὰς ἐκκλησίας τὰς εἰκόνας τῶν τεθνεώτων συγγενῶν ἐκείνων καὶ τιμώντων ἐφέροντο, καὶ ἀναθέματι τοὺς οὕτω ποιοῦντας καθυποβάλλουσιν, οὐ κατὰ τῆς ὀρθῆς προσκυνήσεως τῶν τε ἁγίων καὶ ἁγίων εἰκόνων καὶ τοῦ τιμίου σταυροῦ καὶ τῶν λοιπῶν, ὧν εἴρηται, ὅπου μάλιστα καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ καιροῦ τῶν Ἀποστόλων εἶναι τὰς ἁγίας εἰκόνας ἐν τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ καὶ προσκυνεῖσθαι παρὰ τῶν πιστῶν πλεῖστοι ὅσοι καὶ ἱστοροῦσι καὶ κηρύττουσι, μεθ’ ὧν καὶ μεθ’ οὓς ἡ ἁγία οἰκουμενικὴ ἑβδόμη σύνοδος καταισχύνει πᾶσαν αἱρετικῶν βδελυρίαν.
Ἐπειδὴ σαφέστατα μὲν δίδωσιν ἐννοεῖν, ὅπως δεῖ προσκυνεῖν τὰς ἁγίας εἰκόνας καὶ τὰ προειρημένα ἄνωθεν, ἀναθεματίζει δὲ καὶ ἀφορισμῷ καθυποβάλλει τοὺς ἢ προσκυνοῦντας τὰς εἰκόνας λατρευτικῶς ἢ λέγοντας τοὺς ὀρθοδόξους εἰδωλολατρεῖν προσκυνοῦντας τὰς εἰκόνας. Ἀναθεματίζομεν οὖν καὶ ἡμεῖς μετ’ ἐκείνων τοὺς προσκυνοῦντας ἢ ἅγιον ἢ ἄγγελον ἢ εἰκόνα ἢ σταυρὸν ἢ λείψανον ἁγίων ἢ ἱερὸν σκεῦος ἢ εὐαγγέλιον ἢ ἄλλο τι, ὅσα ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ ἄνω καὶ ὅσα ἐν τῇ γῇ καὶ ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ, λατρευτικῶς, καὶ μόνῳ τῷ ἐν Τριάδι Θεῷ τὴν λατρευτικὴν προσκύνησιν ἀπονέμομεν, Ἀναθεματίζομεν δὲ καὶ τοὺς λέγοντας τὴν προσκύνησιν τῶν εἰκόνων εἰκονολατρείαν καὶ μὴ προσκυνοῦντας αὐτὰς καὶ μὴ τιμῶντας τὸν σταυρὸν καὶ τοὺς ἁγίους, ὡς ἡ Ἐκκλησία παρέδωκεν.
Ὥστε ἡμεῖς καὶ τοὺς ἁγίους καὶ τὰς ἁγίας εἰκόνας τιμῶμεν, ὃν εἴρηται τρόπον, καὶ ἱστοροῦμεν ταύτας εἰς καλλωπισμὸν τῶν ναῶν, καὶ ἵν’ ὦσι βιβλία τῶν ἀμαθῶν, καὶ πρὸς μίμησιν τῶν ἀρετῶν τῶν ἁγίων καὶ ἀνάμνησιν καὶ ἔρωτος αὔξησιν, καὶ πρὸς ἐγρήγορσιν τοῦ ἐπικαλεῖσθαι ἀεὶ τὸν μὲν Κύριον ὡς δεσπότην καὶ σωτῆρα, τοὺς δὲ ἁγίους ὡς δούλους μὲν ἐκείνου, βοηθοὺς δὲ καὶ μεσίτας ἡμῶν.
Καὶ ταῦτα μὲν περὶ τῶν κεφαλαίων καὶ ἐρωτήσεων τοῦ Κυρίλλου.
[I do not have the Greek text for the remainder of the Confession]
But the heretics do find fault with even the prayer of the pious unto God, for we know not why they should calumniate those of the Monks only. Moreover, that prayer is a conversation with God, and a petitioning for such good things as be meet for us, from him of whom we hope to receive, an ascent too of the mind untoGod, and a pious expression of our purpose towards God, a seeking what is above, the support of a holy soul, a worship most acceptable to God, a token of repentance, and of steadfast hope, we do know; and prayer is made either with the mind alone, or with the mind and voice; thereby engaging in the contemplation of the goodness and mercy of God, of the unworthiness of the petitioner, and in thanksgiving, and in realising the promises attached to obedience to God. And it is accompanied by faith, and hope, and perseverance, and observance of the commandments; and, as already said, is a petitioning for heavenly things; and it hath many fruits, which it is needless to enumerate; and it is made continually, and is accomplished either in an upright posture, or by kneeling. And so great is its efficacy, that it is acknowledge to be both the nourishment and the life of the soul. And all this is gathered from Divine Scripture; so that if any ask for demonstration thereof, he is like a fool, or a blind man, who disputeth about the sun’s light at the hour of noon, and when the sky is clear. But the heretics, wishing to leave nothing unassailed that Christ hath enjoined, carp at this also. But being ashamed thus openly to impiously maintain as much concerning prayer, they do not forbid it to be made at all, but are distributed at the prayers of the Monks; and they act thus, that they may raise in the simple-minded a hatred towards the Monks; so tha tthey may not endure even the sight of them, as though they were profane and innovators, much less allow the dogmas of the pious and Orthodox faith to be taught by them. For the adversary is wise as to evil, and ingenious in inventing calumnies. Wherefore his followers also – such as these heretics especially – are not so much anxious about piety, as desirous of ever involving men in an abyss of evils, and of estranging them into places, which the Lord taketh not under his care (cf. Deut. 11.12).
They should be asked therefore, what are the prayers of the Monks; and if they can show that the Monks do anything entirely different from themselves, and not in accordance with the Orthodox worship of Christians, we also will join with them, and say, not only that the Monks are no Monks, but also no Christians. But if the Monks set forth particularly the glory and wonders of God, and continually, and unremittingly, and at all times, as far as is possible for man, proclaim the Deity, with hymns and doxologies; now singing, forsooth, parts of Scripture, and now gathering hymns out of Scripture, or at least giving utternace to what is agreeable to the same; we must acknowledge that they perform a work apostolical and prophetical, or ratehr that of the Lord.
Wherefore, we also, in singing the Paraklitiki, the Triodion, and the Menaion, perofrm a work in no wise unbecoming Christians. For all such books discourse of the Deity as one, and yet of more than one personality, and that even in the Hymns; now gathered out of the Divine Scriptures, and now according to the direction of the Spirit; and in order that in the melodies, the words may be paralleled by other words, we sing parts of Scripture; moreover, that it may be quite plain that we always sing parts of Scripture, to every one of our hymns, called a Troparion, we add a verse of Scripture. And if we sing, or read the Thecara [Threasury], or other prayers composed by the Fathers of old; let them say what there is in these which is blasphemous, or not pious, and we with them will prosecure these [monks].
But if they say this only, that to pray continually and unremittingly is wrong, what have they to do with us? Let them contend with Christ – as indeed they do contend – who spake the parable of the unjust judge (Luke 28.2), how that prayer should be made continually; and taught us to watch and pray (Mark 13.33), in order to escape trials, and to stand before the Son of man (Luke 21.36). Let them contend with Paul, [who] in the [5th] Chapter of the First Epislte to the Thessalonians, and elsewhere in many places [exhorteth to pray unremittingly]. I forbear to mention the divine leaders of the Catholic Church, form Christ until us; for to put these [heretics] to shame sufficeth the accord of the Forefathers, Apostles, and Prophets concerning prayer.
If, therefore, what the Monks do is what the Apostles and Prophets did; and, we may say, what the holy Fathers and Forefathers of Christ himself did; it is manifest that the prayers of the Monks are fruits of the Holy Spirit, the giver of graces. But the novelties where the Calvinists have blasphemously introduced concerning God and divine things, perverting, mutilating, and abusing the Divine Scriptures, are sophistries and inventions of the devil.
Unavailing too is the assertion, the the Church cannot, without violence and tyranny, appoints fasts and abstinence from certain meats. For the Church for the mortification of the flesh and all the passions, and acting most rightly, carefully appointeth prayer and fasting, of which all the Saints have been lovers and examples; through which our adversary the devil (cf. 1 Pet. 5.8) being overthrown by the grace from on high, together with his armies and his hosts – the race (cf. 2 Tim. 4.7) that is set before the pious is the more easily accomplished. In making these provisions the undefiled (cf. Eph. 5.27) Church everywhere useth neither violence nor tyranny; but exhorteth, admonisheth, and teacheth, in accordance with Scripture, and persuadeth by the power of the Spirit.
And to what hath been mentioned a certain fellow at Charenton – we mean the beforementioned Claud – addeth certain other ridiculous objections against us, and unworthy of any consideration; but what hath been said by him we regard as idle tales; and the man himself we consider as a trifler and altogether illiterate. For from [the time of] Photius what vast numbers have there been, and there are no, in the Eastern Church, eminent for wisdom, and theology, and holiness, by the power of the Spirit. And it is most absurd [to argue] that because certain of the Eastern Priests keep the Holy Bread in wooden vessels, within the Church, btu without the Bema, hung on one of the columns; that, therefore, they do not acknowledge the real and true transmutation of the bread into the Body of the Lord. For that certain of the poor Priests do keep the Lord’s Body in wooden vessels, we do not deny; for truly Christ is not honoured by stones and marbles; but asketh for a sound purpose and a clean heart.
And this is what happened to Paul. “For we have” (2 Cor. 4.7), he says, “the treasure in earthern vessels.” But where particular Churches able, as with us here in Jerusalem, the Lord’s Body is honourably kept within the Holy Bema of such Churches, and a seven-light lamp always kept burning before it.
And I am tempted to wonder, if it may be that the heretics have seen the Lord’s Body hanging in some Churches without the Bema, because perhaps the walls of the Bema were unsafe on account of age, and so have arrived at these absurd conclusions; but they did not notice Christ portrayed on the apse of the Holy Bema as a babe [lying] in the Paten; so that they might have known, how that the Easterns do not represent that there is in the Paten a type, or grace, or aught else, but the Christ himself; and so believe that the Bread of the Eucharist is naught else, but becometh substantially the Body itself of the Lord, and so maintain the truth.
But concerning all these things it has been treated at large and most lucidly in what is called The Confession of the Eastern Church, by George, of Chios, from Coresius in his [Treatises] concerning the Mysteries, and of predestination, and of grace, and of free-will, and of the intercession and adoration of Saints, and of the adoration of Icons, and in the Refutation composed by him of the illicit Synod of the heretics holden on a certain occasion in Flanders, and in many other [Treatises]; by Gabriel, of Peloponnesus, Metropolitan of Philadelphia; and by Gregory Protosyncellus of Chios in his [Treatises] concerning the Mysteries; by Jeremias, the Most Holy Patriarch of Constantinople, in three dogmatic and Synodical Letters to the Lutherans of Tubingen in German; by John, Priest and Economus of Constatninople, surnamed Nathaniel; by Meletius Syrigus, of Crete, in the Orthodox Refutation composed by him of the Chatpers and Questions of the said Cyril [Lucar]; by Theophanes, Patriarch of Jerusalem, in his dogmatic Epistle to the Lithuanians, and in innumerable other [Epistles]. And before these hath it been spoken most excellently of these matters by Symeon, of Thessalonica, and before him by all the Fathers, and by the Ecumenical Synods, by ecclesiastical historians too; and even by writers of secular history under the Christian Autocrats of Rome, have these matters been mentioned incidently; by all of whom, without any controvery, the aforesaid were received from the Apostles; whose traditions, whether by writing, or by word, have through the Fathers desended until us. Further, the argument derived from the heretics also confirmeth the aforesaid. For the Nestorians after the year of salvation, 428, the Armenians too, and the Copts, and the Syrians, and further even the Ethiopians, who dwell at the Equator, and beyond this towards the tropics of Capricorn, whom those that are tehre commonly call Campesii, after the year … [No date in the text] of the Incarnation broke away from the Catholic Church; and each of these hath as peculiar only its heresy, as all know from the Acts of the Ecumenical Synods. Albeit, as concerning the purpose and number of the Sacred Mysteries, and all what hath been said above – except their own particular heresy, as hath been said – they entirely believe with the Catholic Church; as we see with our own eyes every hour, and learn by experience and conversation, here in the Holy City of Jerusalem, in which there either dwell, or are continualy sojourning, vast numbers of them all, as well learned, such as they have, as illiterate.
Let, therefore, prating and innovating heretics keep silence, and not endeavour by stealing some sentences, [as] against us, from the Scriptures and the Fathers, to cunningly bolster up falsehood, as all apostates and heretics have ever done; and let them say this one thing only, that in contriving excuses (cf. Psalm 140.4) for sins they have chosen to speak wickedness against God (cf. Ps. 74.6), and blasphemies against the Saints.
Let us briefly suffice for the reputation of the falsehoods of the adversaries, which they have devised against the Eastern Church, alleging in support of their falsehoods the incoherent and impious Chapters of the said Cyril [Lucar]. And let it not be for a sign to be contradicted (cf. Luke 2.34) of those heretics that unjustly calumniate us, as though they spake truly; but for a sign to be believed, that is for reformation of their innovations, and for their return to the Catholic and Apostolic Church; in which their forefathers also were of old, and assisted at those Synods and contests against heretics, which these now reject and revile. For it was unreasonable on their part, especially as they considered themselves to be wise, to have listened to men that were lovers of self; and profane, and that spake not from the Holy Spirit, but from the prince of lies, and to have forsaken the Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church, which God hath purchased with the Blood of his own Son (cf. Acts 20.28); and to have abandoned her. For otherwise there will overtake those that have separated from the Church the pains that are reserved for heathens and publicans; but the Lord who hath ever protected her against all enemies, will not neglect the Catholic Church; to him be glory and dominion unto the ages of the ages. Amen.
In the year of salvation 1672, on the 16th of the Month of March, in the Holy City of Jerusalem: –
I, Dositheus, by the mercy of God, Patriarch of the Holy City of Jerusalem and of all Palestine, declare and confess this to be the faith of the Eastern Church.
† ΔΟΣΙΘΕΟΣ ἐλέῳ Θεοῦ Πατριάρχης τῆς ἁγίας πόλεως Ἱερουσαλὴμ καὶ πάσης Παλαιστίνης ἀποφαίνομαι καὶ ὁμολογῶ ταύτην εἶναι τὴν πίστιν τῆς Ἀνατολικῆς Ἐκκλησίας.
I, Dorotheus, of Petra, defining, have signed.
Parthenius, Metropolitan of Holy Nazareth.
I, Joasaph, most humble Metropolitan of Ptolemais and Polisidon, and Proedrus of Caesaria in Palestine, have signed.
I, Neophytus, humble Metropolitan of Holy Bethlehem, declare.
I, Christodulus, humble Archbishop of Gaza, and locum tenens of Jannicus, the most God-beloved Archbishop of the Holy Grotto, defining, have signed.
Antony, most humble Archbishop of Lydda.
I, Christopher, sinful Archbishop of Neapolis, and Proedrus of Sebaste, have signed.
I, Daniel, Hieromonk, Great Archimandrite of the Holy Sepulchre, agreeing with allt he above, have signed.
I, Cyril, Hieromonk, and Great Protosyncellus of Jerusalem, and Prohegumen of the Monastery of the Holy Sepulchre at Trebizond, have signed.
I, Meletius, unworthy Hieromonk, and Archimandrite, and Apocrisiarius of the Holy and Life-Giving Sepulchre to Pagratius the most pious King of the Iberi, and to the most illustrious Sovereigns of Colchis, and of Gruria, together with all the Local Synod of Upper Iberia, defining, have signed.
I, Joseph, Hieromonk, of Emparatasielnes, Kathhegumen of the Monastery of the Iberi at Jerusalem, agree.
I, Gregory, Hieromonk, Kathhegumen of Holy Bethlehem, have signed.
I, Abernius, Hieromonk, and Kathhegumen of the venerable and royal Monastery of the Archangel, have signed.
Daniel, Hieromonk, Kathhegumen of the Holy Lavra of Saint Sabbas.
I, Dionysius, Hieromonk, and Hegumen of Saint Elias, agree.
I, Arsenius, Hieromonk, and Kathhegumen of Saint George at Pezala, have signed.
Neophytus, Hieromonko, Kathhegumen of Saint Thecla.
Germanus, Hieromonk, and Ephemerius of the Holy Sepulchre.
I, Callinicus, Hieromonk, Spiritual [Director] of the Nuns, have signed.
I, Azarias, Great Archdeacon of Jersualem, with the other Hierodeacons, do agree.
Macarius, Hieromonk, Kathhegumen of the Precursor.
I, Abbakum, Skevophylax of the Holy Sepulchre, have signed.
Daniel, Hieromonk, and Syncellus of Jerusalem.
I, Timotheus, from Great Russia, do confess this to be our faith, and that of the Eastern Church.
I, Michael, Priest, Great Economus, believe and confess this to be our faith, which the Apostolic and Orthodox Church commandeth, and enjoineth. [Signed in Arabic.]
Isaac, Priest, Great Skevophylax. [Signed in Arabic.]
Michael, Priest, Great Sacellarius. [Signed in Arabic.]
Moses, Priest, Great Sacellarius.
Sourour, Priest, Protopope. [Signed in Arabic.]
Elias, Priest, Economus of Lydda.
Suleyman, Priest, Economus of Ramplius.
Abib (Agapius), Priest, Protopope of Lydda, with the Priests that are with me. [Signed in Arabic.]
I, Germanus, Hieromonk, and Exarch of the Archbishop of Joppa, agree.
George, Priest, Economus of Caesaria in Palestine. [Signed in Arabic.]
Symeon, Priest, Ephemerius of St Elias on Carmel. [Signed in Arabic.]
I, Gregory, Priest, Protosyncellus of Moldavia, confess this to be our Catholic faith, and that of the Eastern Church.
I, Seraphim, Hierodeacon, from Miletus, do declare the same.
I, Gennadius, Hieromonk, Syncellus of Jerusalem, have signed.
Moses, Priest, Economus of Neapolis. [Signed in Arabic.]
I, Philemon, Hieromonk, and Archimandrite, and Procurator of the Most Holy Metropolis of Bostra, defining, have signed.
I, Macarius, Hieromonk, from Crete, and Preacher of the Holy and Sacred Gospel, and Legate of the Holy Sepulchre unto the Faithful in Macedonia, and Achaia, and Asia, have signed.
Jesus, Priest, Economus of Holy Bethlehem.
George, Priest, and Ephemerius of the Holy Grotto.
Isas, Priest, and Ephemerius of the Holy Grotto.
Jeremias, Priest, Economus of Pezala.
Chores, [Priest] of Campempa, and Economus of Petra.
I, Pascales, Priest, Ephemerius of the holy Mount Thabor, and Procurator of the Village thereof, and of the Village of Nain, and of the neighbourhood, have signed.
Leontius, Exarch of Scythopolis.
Germanus, Hieromonk, Exarch or Procurator of Gabao and Ramala.
Agapius, Priest, Economus of Gaza, and the Priests and Deacons that are with me.
I, George, Priest and Economus of Ptolemais, have signed.
I, Gabriel, Hieromonk, Protosyncellus and Protopsaltes of Jerusalem, to this Apology against heretics, which we have unanimously composed for our Catholic faith, have signed.
Justin, second of the Hierodeacons, and Domesticus of Jerusalem.
Joseph, Hierodeacon, and third of the Deacons.
Joacheim, Great Ecclesiarch.
Joacheim, Hieromonk, Legate unto the Faithful at Catochris.
Lucian, Hieromonk, and Syncellus of Jerusalem.
John, Great Logothetes [of the Church] of the Resurrection. [Signed in Arabic.]
Chaleles, son of Peter, Great Protonotary. [Signed in Arabic.]
Cyril, Hieromonk, Hegumen of Neochorius.
I, Joasaph, Hieromonk, Archimandrite of the Holy Sepulchre, and Apocrisarius to Alexius, the most serene Autocrat of Moscovy, have signed.
These present, as above, with the proper signatures, to wit, and all particulars, have been entered in this codex of our Apostolic Throne for perpetual memory and assurance thereofm the 20th [day] of March 1672. We, Dositheus, Patriarch of Jerusalem, have, with our own hand, written the same, and do make declaration thereof.
I, Nectarius, formerly Patriarch of Jerusalem, declare and confess this to be our faith, and that of the Eastern Church.
I, Nectarius, Monk, and Secretary [of the Church] of the Holy Resurrection of Christ our God, agreeing with the Holy Synod, have signed.